From the Brooklyn
Daily Eagle newspaper, October 27-29, 1937
A series of three
articles published dealing with the position of the Jew in some
The Jew in Europe
Warsaw, Oct. 27 (AP) -- The "Classroom
Ghetto" has heightened the anxiety of Poland's 3,500,000 Jews, long
beset by a rising tide of anti-Semitism.
This recent innovation
to segregate Jews in Polish universities is looked upon apprehensively
by the Jews as alarming evidence of official yielding to anti-Jewish
For two years Jewish
students struggled against unofficial attempts to force them to sit in
segregated "Jewish sections" in classrooms and lecture halls. Rather
than yield, they heard lectures standing.
But when the
universities reopened this Fall, orders were issued by all rectors to
mark seats distinctly with initials indicating which might be used by
Christians and which by Jews.
A protesting delegation
of Jewish deputies was told by the Minister of Education the purpose
of the formal segregation was to end once and for all the continual
student rioting growing out of friction between Jewish and Christian
Later, similar official
segregation measures came to light in various sections of the country
when grammar schools opened. In Minsk Mazowiecki two schools were
reserved exclusively for Christian children, a third for Jews.
Officialdom 'Urges' Emigration
Official emphasis on
the "urgent necessity" of more extensive emigration of Jews is another
source of anxiety among the race.
This idea of a gradual
"evacuation" of the country's Jewish population was given
international emphasis when Foreign Minister Beck last year told the
League of Nations Council, Poland is deeply interested in Palestine
affairs, in view of the alleviation of Poland's over-population which
could be achieved through extensive Jewish emigration to Palestine.
Polish Jews were much
aroused by this speech, which they interpreted as an admission by the
Polish Government of a desire to get rid of them.
More recently, the
question of mass emigration of Jews has been taken up by Parliament,
and there is hardly a day that some Polish newspaper does not call the
public's attention to a Jewish emigration as a cure for the country's
Immigrate to What Country?
argue that most of the real Polish Jews immigrated to the United
States during the 19th century, and that those overcrowding the
country now are really Russian and German Jews--undesirable
foreigners, they contend, who have no right to remain.
In the face of all this
agitation, sensationally emphasized by chronic anti-Jewish riots and
Jew beatings, many Jews frankly say they would like very much to
emigrate, "but how, and to what country?"
"There is a strong
desire on the part of large Jewish groups to emigrate," Heshel Gotlieb,
Jewish deputy, said recently.
"The majority, however,
would like to emigrate to well-organized countries. If the United
States were to amend its immigration laws, long lines of Jews would
stand before the American Consulate in Warsaw. We do not, however,
boycott any proposal as to emigration possibilities."
The more radical
elements are propagating the doctrine that the life of Jews in Poland
must be made so unpleasant that they will "have to emigrate." Vigorous
anti-Semitic activity in neighboring Germany naturally encourages this
line of thought.
Vienna, Oct. 28 (AP) --
The lot of the Jew is becoming progressively complex in three of
Central Europe's smaller countries--Austria, Hungary and Rumania.
Mounting social and
economic pressure have reduced their means of livelihood in Austria
and Hungary, and in Rumania anti-Semitism threatens to become an
inter-party, if not parliamentary, issue.
In Austria, with a
Jewish population of 196,000--of which 171,000 live in Vienna--it is a
truism that the higher the mountain village, the keener the feeling
against Jews because Alpine villages are the country's strongholds of
Jews Barred as Hospital
Austrian Jews say
municipal hospitals accept no more Jews as assistant doctors and that
the University of Vienna appoints n more Jews to professorships. This,
they assert, is representative of anti-Semitism penetrating almost
every branch of endeavor.
Young Austrian Jews
have no hope of getting jobs in federal or municipal offices, although
under the old pension and seniority system, those already in such jobs
are permitted to stay.
Even some Jewish
commercial firms are hiring only non-Jews for work that entails
contact with the general public.
Jews may belong to one
legal Austrian political organization, the Fatherland Front, but very
few hold offices in it, or are members of directorates of
professional, cultural or government groups.
1,000 Fleeing Every Year
Jews are fleeing
Hungary at an average of 1,000 a year. Between 500 and 1,000 more
annually withdraw from Jewry. This year the Hungarian Jewish
population of 445,000 will be further reduced by 1,700, the estimated
surplus of deaths over births.
Next year losses
through emigration, deaths and renunciation of religion are expected
to mount to 4,000. The numbers in each category are rising steadily,
and pessimists, says the Jewish newspaper Die Stimme, predict the
extinction of the race in Hungary.
In Hungary there are no
laws directed specifically against Jews, and anti-Semitic
demonstrations are comparatively few.
But Jewish leaders
protest there is no sphere of professional or commercial activity in
which Jews are not being systematically pushed out.
The number of Jewish
lawyers recently has decreased 20 percent in Hungary; doctors, 15
percent. Jewish tradesmen declare they are being driven out of
business by semi-official retail co-operative organizations called "Hangya,"
which have branches throughout the country and can undersell them.
In Rumania some
political writers go so far as to say that the issue of anti-Semitism
may be a factor in the life or death of Premier George Tatarescu's
National Liberal Cabinet.
Berlin, Oct. 29 (AP) --
The Jew has been eliminated politically by the Nazi regime, but he
still is a factor in the German scene.
Since the Nazi came
into power in 1933 approximately 100,000 Jews have emigrated,
leaving--according to Jewish sources--some 400,000 still in Germany.
however, contend all racial Jews should be included, even those the
churches classify as Christians. They place the total at 500,00, with
200,000 in Berlin.
In either case, it is
obvious the vast majority of Germany's Jews are still here, stripped
of whatever political power, social prestige or cultural influence
they may have enjoyed in days before Chancellor Adolf Hitler rose to
It is impossible for a
Jew to hold public office; he is not even classified as a citizen. He
is merely a German subject.
Socially he is an
outcast. Marriage or extra-marital relations between Jew and non-Jew
can land the offender in jail.
On a Ghetto Basis
Jewish actors, opera
singers, playwrights and directors can perform or produce only for
Jewish audiences. In other words, they are permitted to function only
on a Ghetto basis.
All newspapers, of
course, are under the direct or indirect control of the propaganda
ministry. No Jew may edit or contribute to any one of them, unless it
is a Jewish newspaper published only for the Jewish population.
Books by Jewish
authors--even law books--are taboo for Germans. An exception is the
Bible. It has not yet been forbidden, but there are churchmen who
favor throwing the Old Testament overboard.
Jewish scholars and
scientists no longer play a prominent role in the German universities.
Of 1,000 recently listed as emigrants, 238 had found ports in the
United States, 270 in England, 52 in Palestine, 64 in France. The
remainder were scattered among 42 countries. Prof. Albert Einstein,
who chose the United States, is perhaps the most celebrated on the
Stores Pass Into Aryan Hands
In business the Jew is
being eliminated more gradually. One by one the big Jewish department
stores, restaurants and other establishments are passing into "Aryan"
Many Jews still are in
business, however, especially in the smaller establishments, and in
the medical and dental professions.
Sometimes the foreigner
new to Germany is surprised to find so many Jews at work. Without
consciously attempting to defy the ant--Jewish boycott, he finds
himself going to a Jewish dentist, having his suits made by a Jewish
tailor, renting a flat from a Jewish landlord.
All this does not mean
the Jew has a chance to be happy in Germany. If no deliberate effort
is made to prevent him from earning a living, a very deliberate and
sustained effort is made to make him feel out of place and unwelcome.
He is not allowed to
forget he is not wanted, even though he may be temporarily and
Reliable Jewish sources
estimate that half of all the Jews will have quit Germany by 1941, and
unless the Nazi regime changes its racial policy--the last Jews will
have left Germany by 1950.