affluent German Jews emigrated during the early Nazi years.
Less fortunate Jews gained an escape route to the east after
Germany and the Soviet Union signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop
non-aggression treaty in August of 1939. Those who preferred
not to become Soviet citizens traveled across Siberia to
China. Shanghai, the most cosmopolitan city in the Far East,
became a natural haven for German Jews seeking refuge
abroad, because no visas were required to enter or to reside
top: In August of 1936 the Königsbergers
of Frankfurt notified a relative that their belongings were
packed and they would set sail soon to New York.
airship Hindenburg: Post card postage 15 pfennigs plus 50
pfennigs air mail surcharge.
October 2, 1939, post card from Wartenburg, East Prussia,
German Jewish family to friends and family members who had
fled to Shanghai.
censor's handstamp used only from September 6 to
mid-November 1939, coinciding with the German conquest and
subjugation of Poland.