located on the Ettersberg mountain 10 kilometers outside
Weimar, opened in May 1937. at its peak, the camp held about
80,000 inmates. An illegal resistance organization, the
International Camp Committee (ILK), began recruiting among
the prisoners in 1943. On April 11, 1945, the ILK staged an
armed uprising, and arrested the SS personnel who had not
fled as Allied forces advanced deep into Germany. Two days
later, the United States army arrived. Buchenwald was the
only concentration camp to be liberated by its inmates.
Anti-fascist resistance leader Hermann Jahn sent this letter
to his wife Hedwig on May 20, 1938. He survived his
seven-year incarceration and became the mayor of Erfurt
after liberation in 1945, but Buchenwald had broken his
health and he died in 1946 at age 51.
waybill with the blue linear return cachet of the Buchenwald
crematorium and the red circular mark of the Waffen-SS
command at Buchenwald accompanied a shipment of ashes to a
Jewish cemetery in Vienna. Only three examples of the
crematorium marking have been recorded.
stamps front and back paid postage for a three-kilogram
parcel mailed May 29, 1942.