The Immigrant Jew in America

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The Russian Jew in Philadelphia*
by Charles S. Bernheimer, Ph.D.

* - From "The Immigrant Jew in America"-- issued by the National Liberal Immigration League, New York City, 1907.
Also included in earlier 1905 edition of "The Russian Jew in the United States."

It is well recognized that housing conditions in Philadelphia are different from those in other large cities, and that whatever the evils, we do not have to contend with the evils of the tenement. However, it will not do for Philadelphians to gloat over the fortunate situation which has enabled so many working-men of the city to live it their own little homes, sometimes under their own "vine and fig-tree," for we, too, have evils which call for remedy; we have allowed congestion among our foreign populations; we have permitted bad housing to grow up; we have failed to make and to enforce regulations which prevent sickness and disease and contagion; and, through negligence, the City of Philadelphia bas problems which it should have coped with ere they role to large dimensions.

A little study of housing conditions in the southeastern section of the city was made in the spring of 1902 under the auspices of the Octavia Hill Association. The writer had the pleasure of taking part in the investigation, the entire results of which were placed at his disposal.

The five wards of the district to which attention was given, the Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth and Seventh, contain about one-eighth of the population of the city and cover about one-fiftieth of the area. The average density, of the most thickly populated ward, the Third, is 209 persons per acre.1 The average density for the entire city is 14 persons to the acre. It is therefore evident that we are dealing with a congested portion of the city.

I shall take up the figures of the Jewish block, among the three examined in the investigation referred to, the other two being Italian and negro blocks respectively,-- so denominated because the greater part of the inhabitants are of the particular class. In the Jewish block, Third to Fourth Street, South to Bainbridge Street, I have note 75 houses occupied by Jews; 9 on Third Street, 13 on Fourth Street, 13 on South Street, 23 on Kater Street, 3 on Orianna Street, and 14 on Bainbridge Street. This is, in many respects, a good illustrative block for our purpose, representing as it does several elements, from the economic standpoint. On South Street, there are stores where all sorts of goods may be purchased; it is a regular retail street. Third and Fourth Streets are likewise occupied by shop-keepers. Bainbridge Street contains old clothes and second-hand shops. In the upper stories of these buildings, those portions not occupied by the store-keeper are rented to tenants, whose occupations are tailoring, peddling and the like. The residents of the smaller streets, Orianna and Kater, and the upper floors of the buildings of the main streets are a poorer class than the merchants of South Street and the shop-keepers of Third and Fourth Streets.

Let us take up for examination one of the small streets of the block and ascertain the condition with reference to housing. On Kater Street we have a record of 23 houses with Jewish families. There were among them 9 tailors, 3 peddlers, 1 huckster, 1 shirtmaker, 1 paper-hanger. This is sufficient to give some idea of the economic position of the inhabitants. The average rental per house was $15.04 per month. This is equal to $8.06 for each family, as there were 40 families in the 23houses. There are thus an average of 1½ families to the house. The total number of persons in these houses was 299--197 adults and 102 children (under 14 years of age). This is an average of about 5 to a family, and 8.65 persons to a house. The houses average three stories each, or 5.83 rooms each, there being altogether 134 rooms. The result is that there were 1.48 per­sons to each room, a condition of crowding not only from a Philadelphia point of view, but from that of congestion generally. It is a larger number than was found in an investigation in three similar districts in Chicago, where the average was 1.28. It must be admitted, however, that a comparison baaed on the number of persons to a dwelling does not show a bad state of affairs for this population contrasted with the average of the population in some of the large cities. In Philadelphia the number of persons in 1900, according to the Twelfth United States Census, was 5.4. In Baltimore the average number was 5.7, in St. Louis 7, in Boston 8.4, in Chicago 8.8, in Brooklyn 10.2, in the boroughs of Manhattan and Bronx {of Greater New York) 20.4. But we are justi1led in making comparison with congested sections, for our purpose.2

Of course, to make the comparison absolutely accurate as a basis for sanitary and health conditions we should have to take into consideration the number of cubic feet in the rooms, the surrounding of each, and the like, but it is sufficient here to bring out the fact that a state of crowding exists.

Belonging to the 23 houses on Kater Street there were 22 water closets and 5 privies. This is an average of 1.17 to a house, or .67 to a family, or, to put the fact in another way, 7 adults and children had the use of one water-closet or privy.

The total number of bath-tubs in these 23 houses was 2, of which one is used only in the summer time.

Twelve of the 23 houses had as their sole water accommodation one hydrant each, in the yard. Three additional houses had a total of one hydrant for common use. Two others had one hydrant in common. Thus there is a total of 14 hydrants for 17 houses occupied by 20 families composed of 102 persona, an average of more than 7 persons (adults and children) to one hydrant for washing clothes and persons. The other 20 families had altogether 20 faucets.

These statements show housing conditions in a poor street, merely from the standpoint of the barest and most ordinary health and sanitary accommodation.

When one considers that comfortable houses with good accommodations can be found in other sections of the city at $15 per month, it is a fair inference that the landlord profits by a condition of affairs which permits bad housing; that, in any event, the tenant does not obtain a good return for his rental as compared with other sections.

Now, taking in the entire block, as regards the 75 houses containing Jewish residents, we find that the total number of persons was 688--372 adults and 316 children. These represent 142 families. As there were 496 rooms in these houses, the average number of rooms per house was 6.6. The average number of persons to the room was 1.39, a condition of crowding above that quoted for Chicago.3 As the total number of families in these 75 houses was 142, the average of families to the house was 1.9, and as the total nnmber of persons was 688, the average was 9.17 persons to the house. This is considerably more than the average for the city at large (which is but 5.4 persons to the house). It is also more than the average in the three districts in Philadelphia which were studied. Their average was 7.55. The average for the Italian block was 9.88 and for the negro 5.73. It will be seen that the crowding in the Italian block is the greatest.

In this block in the 75 houses there were 86 water closets and 22 privies, making a total of 108, an average of 1.46 to a house, or 1.31 to a family, that is, 6.4 had the use of one water closet or privy. As to quality, some of these closets and privies are reported as being in bad condition, which may mean not kept ,cleanly, insufficient flush of water, so arranged as not to allow of the exhalation of gaseous odors, and the like. Though something may in instances be due to the carelessness of tenants, many faults which affect the permanent health of the community are due to the landlords in not providing adequate and approved appliances.

There were in the 75 houses altogether 8 bath tubs, of which 3 were used only in the summer. This is an average of about 86 persons to a tub.

Such a condition, on its face, bespeaks a failure to appreciate the value of the bath. It should be understood, however, that the public bath is often patronized in the absence of a home bath. There are five private bathing establishments down-town conducted by Jews and patronized almost entirely by the Jewish population of this section. They have the ordinary bath and the Russian or sweat-bath--somewhat similar in principle to the Turkish bath. The superintendent of the Public Baths Association at Gaskill Street above Fourth, informs me that about 40 per cent of the establishment there are Jews. Then, too, the public baths of the city are patronized to a considerable extent.

It appears, therefore, that there is more use of bathing facilities than the absence of bath tubs in the houses indicates. At the same time, it seems that the population needs considerable education in the use of water for the body. The habits of Russia and cold climates, where there was less need for the bath, must be adapted to the at times heated atmosphere of America and to the modern notions of frequent bathing of the body as a measure of health. A similar absence of baths is found in the houses of other foreign born and of the negroea in this section of the city, but it is regretable to have to institute the comparison because along other lines the Jew's education and point of view are so far advanced over those of other nationalities.4

Somewhat similar results to those above narrated were obtained with reference to a block further south. The study referred to was made by a resident of the College Settlement, Miss Edith Jones. The study embraced Carpenter, Christian, Fourth and Fifth Streets, and the north side of Christian Street between Fourth and Fifth. The investigator noted the following: "One observation as regards nationality needs to be recorded. An Irish family, unless hopelessly untidy, is thoroughly clean, not only inside but outside the house and all its surroundings. On the other hand, the majority of the Jewish homes are clean inside, but stairways, closets, yards, etc., which must be used in common by several families, are scarcely cared for at all. They seem unable to act together or to form any agreement for division of common duties."

In an uptown district an investigation into housing conditions was made in 1904 by Mias Emily W. Dinwiddie for the Octavia Hill Association.5 I visited a number of the houses with her. The district contained 35 houaes on North American Street, 30 on New Market Street, and 8 on Wood Street, making 73 in which the inhabitants were predominantly Jews out of a total of 179 houses investigated. The number of Jewish families in these 73 houses was 100, an average of 1.45 families to a house. The total number of Jewish persona was found to be 606, of which 341 were over fourteen years of age and 265 under that age. The number of rooms occupied by the Jewish families was 3.72, making an average of 1.66 persona to a room. The number per house was 8.36.

The number of water-closets was 32 and of privies 42, making a total of 74 toilets, an average of one to a house, or of one to 8.19 persona each. There were 122 faucets (usually the only one for a house being connected with a hydrant in the yard) an average of 1.67 per house, or 1.22 per family. The number of baths (whose faucets were included in the total) was 5. That is, there was an average of 121 persons to a tub.

The rentals of the Jewish families may be judged by those for the district generally. Families occupying one house paid $8.78 monthly, or $2.32 per room. In houses for more than one family the average was $5.18 per apartment and $2.40 per room.

The occupations of the heads of the 100 Jewish families were as follows: Baker 4, blacksmith and iron worker 3, button-maker 1, buttonhole-maker 1, carpenter and cabinet­maker 4, cigar-maker 4, cobbler and shoemaker 4, cooper 1, driver and expressman 4, fruit-huckster and fruit-stand dealer 9, glazier 1, hatmaker 3, horse dealer 1, Jewish teacher 2, junk dealer 1, laborer 1, laundryman 2, leather worker 3, masseur 1, nurse 1, operator on clothing 5, optician 1, picture framer 1, polisher 1, presser 3, safemaker 1, salemasn 1, shirtmaker 4, shopkeeper 10, tailor 10, ticket collector 1, tinsmith 3, trunkmaker 1, unskilled employee in factory 7.

In the houses referred to we have illustrations largely of poor conditions and ill-kept surroundings. It is doubtless true that in the matter of housing, so far as ean be presented by average statisties, no highly flattering results are to be adduced with reference to a number of sections in the down-town portion of the city. The results, to be sure, show standards on the whole not deficient as compared with surrounding populations of foreign immigrants and would in many respects be on a par with American fam­ilies of the same economic status.

If we now proceed more generally we shall find that among the immigrant Jewish population, with economic strides there have been made vast social strides. A number have moved into what are regarded as more respectable streets, where the surrounding conditions are more attractive, the houses better built and modernized, with advantages of good plumbing, ample water accommodation, well ventilated rooms and the like; and they have been furnished in a becoming manner. So that when one steps into one of these homes of the Russian, Roumanian or Hungarian Jew of better grade and should have any preconceived notions as to dirty, ill-smelling apartments in the "slums," he will be quickly disillusioned, and will find a superior state of aflairs. He will see in the family a social attractiveness, an intellectual interest, and an enthusiastic whole-souledness that may at times take him aback, and he may be compelled to admit that the family has even some points of superiority over many of his acquaintances who do not live in the "slums" and who pretend to be in an "advanced" state of mind. And the description does not necessarily apply to families which have progressed to a fair state of comfort. It has equal application to large numbers of persons of modest income who keep their homes tidily, who live in small streets in small houses, but who nevertheless maintain an appearance superior to that of their neighbors. I know a number of such, but cannot bring out their existence in a statistical statement covering any particular block, for they are in scattered groups.

When, therefore, we cast up the acoount of the immigrant Jew on the score of cleanliness we must take into consideration these families, for they give tone, dignity and worth to the population, and nowhere can be found an immigrant class which shows the advanced state which these show.

In all my wanderings in the southern section of the city I have rarely seen a drunken Jewish man. My experiences with reference to other nationalities of all sorts, including native Americans, would place the immigrant Jewish population at the head of the list of the non-drunken portion of the community. The temperateness of the Jewish population and of the Russian Jewish population in particular is so patent a fact, even to the ordinary observer, that there is hardly any necessity for dwelling on the subject. But it must be taken into consideration to the credit of this element whenever detractors may bring charges against it, for a people that will preserve itself against the evils of drink is entitled to be regarded as in a most progressive state of civilization and to be counted as in so far a desirable factor in the community. Those who see the evil moral and economic consequences of drunkenness among other portions of the community cannot gainsay this.

Russian tea may be said to be a national beverage. It is quite common to observe this drunk in the homes, the societies, and the cafes of the Russian Jewish population.

There is a very prevalent habit of cigarette smoking. With the college young man the cigarette habit sometimes gives way to that of the pipe. With the prosperous business man the cigarette is likewise replaced by the cigar. But, as a rule, the cigarette may be said to be the prevailing means of inhaling tobacco among the Russian Jewish population. In his hours of relaxation, therefore, we may think of the Russian Jew with his Russian tea and his cigarette.

Let us now take up the subject of health and disease among this population.

"Slums Free of Disease" was the heading of an account in one of the Philadelphia newspapers in the summer of 1903. The article stated: "The fact that not a single case of smallpox has existed in that section of the city known as. the 'slums' during the present spread of the disease and the consequent absence of the vaccinating corps in that locality was thus explained by an official of the Bureau of Health today: 'In every foreign country, with the exception of England, compulsory vaccination is in force,' he said. Those who might have escaped the vigilance of the physicians or who hail from England are inspected before they are permitted to land in this country, and if they have not been successfully vaccinated they must submit to the operation, or go back.

"Then, again, their children are not allowed to enter the public schools until they have been vaccinated, so you can readily see that the people in the slum district are the best vaccinated in this city."

Whether this is the whole explanation or not, I do not know, so far as concerns the various elements of the population, but it will be noted further on that in regard to the Jewish element, there is a special reason in the widespread belief in, and practice of vaccination.

Not only was there comparatively less spread of smallpox in the lower wards of the city, but also diphtheria, scarlet fever and typhoid, of which diseases epidemics raged in portions of the other parts of the city. No deduction can be made in regard to this in behalf of the Jews in the down-town wards of the city, except that they shared with their neighbors the absence of epidemic in these diseases.

I have availed myself of some observations in regard to phases of the subject under discussion, which have been made by two Philadelphia physicians.

The following in regard to diseases among the immigrant Jewish population, with special reference to conditions in Philadelphia, is by Dr. David Riesman, and was presented as a discussion on a paper on "Health Problems of the Jewish Poor," read by Dr. Maurice Fishberg, of New York, at the Jewish Chautauqua Summer Assembly in Atlantic City, N. J., July, 1903:

The problems that present themselves to those engaged in an effort to ameliorate the condition of the Jewish poor may, from the medical standpoint, be stated as follows: (1) What diseases afflict the Jewish poor? (2) Why do these diseases  afflict them? (3) How can these diseases be prevented?

The Jewish poor are, of course, subject to the same maladies as is the general community in which they live. Scarlet fever, diphtheria, measles, influenza, whooping cough, pneumonia and typhoid fever prevail among them, according to season and epidemic in1luences. With regard to the first two, scarlet fever and diphtheria, the records of the Municipal Hospital of Philadelphia, as my friend, Dr. Jay F. Schamberg, informs me, show the admission of a far larger number of Jewish ahildren than is warranted by the ratio of these to the general population. I was indeed startled to learn that not less than 25 per cent of the cases of scarlet fever had oecurred in children of Russian­Jewish parentage. In the case of diphtheria the figures are lower, but none the less striking. It is highly improbable, however, that the terrible frequency of these two affections in the children of the Jewish poor indicates any racial tendency; it is much more likely to be due to living in crowded quarters, several families usually being huddled together in one house.

Smallpox, it seems, does not so often attack the Jews as it does their Gentile neighbors. Among 2,700 cases of that dieease received into the Municipal Hospital within the last two years, there was only one Jewish patient. This remarkable immunity is unquestionably due to the fact that the Jews have an abiding and most laudable faith in the efficacy of vaccination as a preventive of smallpox. An unvaccinated Jewish adult is a great rarity.

The multitude of diseases due to alcoholic excess, aIso, are rarely met with among the Jewish poor; for intemperance in drink is not common with them. If, however, I might judge from my own limited experience, I should say that there is a growing fondness for alcohol in the Jewish population; and that this may in time need to be combatted.

In addition to scarlet fever and diphtheria, there are yet other diseases to which the Jewish poor seem more prone than their fellow races. With regard to some of these it is not possible to give figures; and the belief in a racial pre­disposition rests upon impressions rather than upon statistics. Thus, disorders of the blood--anemia and purpuric (hemorrhagic) conditions--appear to be more prevalent among the Jews. The reason for this is, primarily, the deleterious effects of poverty and over­crowding; and also the insuftlcient use of green vegetables and wholesome food in general, and probably the early maturing of the sexes.

Diseases of the stomach are extremely common among the Jews, particularly among the Jewish poor--more common than they are in other races of this dyspeptic country. The cause of this is not intemperance in eating, which plays such an important part in producing stomach trouble among the general American population; for the Russian Jews are quantitatively frugal. Hasty eating, however, poor food--or, rather food unsuited to this climate, tea drinking, and perhaps undue indulgence in soda water and kindred beverages,--all these serve to produce gastic disorders. The confinement occasioned by the chief occupations of the Jewish poor is also a factor, as it is a factor in the majority of diseases afflicting them.

Morbid conditions of the blood vessels are likewise more common among them than they should be and than they need be. Arterial diseases, such as hardening of the arteries, occur especially in the men, and are in large measure due to the abuse of tobacco begun early in life. This and other excesses that I need not specify are also responsible for the frequency of palpitation of the heart.

Erysipelas is, I believe, a trifle more common among the Jewish poor than among the Gentiles (though I have no extensive data with which to substantiate the correctness of this view). At the Philadelphia Hospital, among sixty Russian Jews admitted during the two years from July, 1901, to July, 1903, there were six eases of erysipelas, or 10 per cent, a percentage far larger than that in non-Jews, which was only 4.2. (There were, for instance, twice as many cases of erysipelas as of rheumatism among the Jews admitted.)

Dr. Fishberg has most admirably discussed the prevalence of tuberculosis among the Jewish poor; an my friend, Dr. S. Solis-Cohen, did much on a former occasion to bring this important matter before the public. They have covered the subject so fully that I can add nothing what they said.

Of the frequency of diabetes, to which the poor Jews are probably not quite so prone as their wealthy co-religionists, I need not speak. We know, at present, too little about the causes of the disease to make preventive measures possible.

The exceeding prevalence of nervous affection among the Jews is recognized as an axiom in medicine. Nearly all writers upon nervous diseases, including insanity and idiocy, refer to the fact and try to ftnd reasons for it. The chief cause, it seems to me, is heredity in the larger sense--a racial predisposition transmitted through generations. For this hereditary taint, the grinding intensity of the struggle for existence to which the Jews of Central and Eastern Europe have for ages been subjected is responsible. I need not describe the deplorable and pitiable conditions in Russia, whence the majority of our poor Jews come. "In all Europe," says Anatole Leroy-Beaulieu, "there is no people poorer, none that is compelled to earn ita bread under greater diftlculties than are nine-tenths of the Russian Jews;"and the noted Zionist, Dr. Mandelstamm, says, with grim humor, that there is no people on which experiments in starvation and in the results of insufficient light and air may be made with more ease than on the Ghetto Jews.

These down-trodden Jews come, therefore, to this country with a high-strung, unstable, nervous system, which the conditions of American life are not likely to improve the first, or even in the second, generation. Our mode of  living is in itself productive of various nervous disorders. Nervous prostration (or, as it is called, neurasthenia) has been discovered in this country by the famous New York physician, Beard, and Dr. S. Weir Mitchell had devised his renowned rest-cure treatment for nervous disease, long before the Russian hegira had begun.

Some authorities, such as ProfeBsors Erb and Kraepeli of Heidelberg, and the late Krafft-Ebing, have maintain that in-breeding is, among the Jews, a factor in producing hereditary weakness of the nervous system; but Dr. Martin Engländer, of Vienna, denies this, holding that from eight to ten millions of people are sufficient to preserve a healthy race. He points to the Americans--a race produced by the very opposite of in-breeding, and yet among which neurasthenia is widely prevalent. Among the older stocks of Jews in this country, the Portuguese and the Germans there has necessarily been some in-breeding, but apparently without harmful effect. The contrary, rather, is the case; the race bas been improved physically. This improvement is noticeable in greater stature and in the development of a generally finer type of men and women.

Neurasthenia is most common among the Jews, but hysteria and insanity and idiocy are likewise frequent. The neurasthenic Russian Hebrew is an interesting type, and was aptly compared by Charcot to the Wandering Jew. In an entertaining monograph, Henry Meige, one of Charcot's pupils, traces the legend of the Juif-Errant, and compares it with the actual conditions seen in the migratory, restless Jews of Eastern origin. From the farthest corners of Europe, undismayed by the bitterest hardships imposed by poverty, they find their begging way to La Salpêtrière at Paris. After a few visits to the famous clinic, they vanish as noiselessly as they come, wander back to their far-off home and by singing the praises of the great French specialists, induce others to undertake the wearisome journey.

How can we prevent the spread of nervous affections among the Jews? How can we eradicate the sinister taint? Dr. Fiahberg has indicated the direction in which the answer lies. We must improve economic conditions.

There must be less overcrowding, shorter hours of work, and rational recreation. If we cannot keep the Jewish immigrants from settling in the large cities, we must disperse them there. There is a tendency to spontaneous dispersion in Philadelphia. Gradually the Russian Jews are migrating northward and southward from the central Ghetto, but it will take decades before they are sufficiently scattered to make the hygienic and moral surroundings what they should be.

The Jewish poor must be taught that the new climate conditions require the adopting of another sort of food. They must be instructed in the harmfulness of the abuse of tobacco.

I should also like to see them cultivate the manly sports--baseball, football, rowing, swimming--which do much to develop the body and to imbue the mind with a spirit of self-respecting, fearless manhood.

Tuberculosis, that other great scourge, can best be combatted by education, under the aegis, as Dr. Fishberg has properly said, of charitable organizations assisted by medical advisers. Outdoor life and participation in the national sports will help to develop the chest, which is decidedly smaller in proportion to height than that of non-Jews. The dissemination of knowledge regarding the communicability and the prevention of tuberculosis that has been un dertaken with such good results, first by Dr. Biggs, of thl New York Board of Health, and now by the authorities in Philadelphia, Cleveland, and other cities, will do much to lessen the frequency of the dreaded disease. Establishing sanatoria near large cities will also prove of great benefit as it will render possible an earlier treatment of the disease; and this is essential if a cure is to be effected.

With all his proverbial tenacity of character, the Jew especially the Eastern Jew, is physically and psychically extremely plastic, and only needs a reasonably favorable environment to develop into a noble specimen of man. His energy, intelligence and integrity will solve many of th perplexing economic problems, and in that way the sanitary and hygienic questions will in part, at least, be answered.

On the subject of consumption, the following is taken from the discussion of Dr. Solomon Solis-Cohen on Dr. Fishberg's paper upon the same oceasion as.Dr. Riesman's discussion:

The knowledge of how to prevent consumption is neither absent nor new. It is old and thoroughly recognized, but it is not acted upon. Liability to the infection of consumption comes from lack of food, from overwork, from over-anxiety, from lack of fresh air, from lack of sunshine, from lack of cleanliness. The infective agent thrives in dampness, darkness and filth--dies in cleanliness, sunshine and fresh air. Yon cannot shut people up, six, nine in a room hardly big enough for one, and too damp, dark and dirty for any,--you cannot have them work indoors under factory, tenement and sweatshop conditions, sixteen hours a day for starvation wages, and expect racial resistance to tuberculosis or religious dietary laws to save them. It is an utter impossibility. Some years ago Dr. Riesman and I went over the records of our dispensary service at the Philadelphia Polyclinic to see approximately how large a proportion the number of consumptive Jews bore to the number of consumptives of other social groups who came to the same clinic. We found that a very large proportion--I think something like 12 per cent of the poor Russian Jews of Philadelphia who applied to that dispensary, were consumptive; but we also found that the proportion of the consumptives among these poor Jews was less by one-third or more than that among the poor people of other races who came to the same dispensary. In other words, the racial immunity apparently saved some poor Jews, but evidently did not save all. Sweeping conclusions cannot be drawn from the experience of one physician, no matter how great that experience may be; for after all, any one person has but a very limited experience compared with that of the profession at large. Yet in so far as I may draw guarded conclusions from my own experience, it would appear that consumption is largely on the increase among the poor Russian Jews of Philadelphia; that the relative immunity today is less than it was at the time Dr. Riesman and I made the investigations referred to, for my Gratz College lecture. I see proportionally more Jewish consumptives than I used to see, and after making all necessary corrections for personal factors, that means that the stress and storm of the struggle for existence are bearing more hardly upon them, that they are more narrowly crowded, more poorly fed, more excessively overworked, in a more deplorable economic condition. This is so, notwithstanding the obvious fact that many among those who have come to Philadelphia from Russia, during the past twenty years, have left the ranks of the poor and comparatively poor, and entered into those of the well-to-do and the comparatively wealthy. The large increase in immigration and the natural increase among those who remain very poor, continue to keep up this disproportion.

1 Annals of the Academy of Political and Social Science, July, 1902, p. 111.
2 Tenement Conditions in Chicago, p. 64. Of the three Chicago districts one is composed of Italian and Jewish residents and the average in this was 1.26 persons per room.
3 Tenement Conditions in Chicago, p. 64.
4 See Tenement Conditions in Chicago, p. 108.
5 Housing Conditions in Philadelphia.







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