The Immigrant Jew in America

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The Russian Jew in New York*
Eastern States -- J. G. Lipman
Western States -- A. R. Levy

* - From "The Immigrant Jew in America"-- issued by the National Liberal Immigration League, New York City, 1907.
Also included in earlier
1905 edition of "The Russian Jew in the United States."


(A) Eastern States


The southern part of New Jersey contains vast stretches of stunted pine and scrub oak. Traveling from Camden over the West Jersey and Seashore Railroad one soon comes into the heart of this region, the home of the garter snake and the hare. The silence of the tangled plain is unbroken save for the woodman's axe and the noise of the passing trains. Occasionally isolated farms and small villages come into view, and as they are passed the struggling vegetation again stands out against the arching sky. The train rushes on to the coast, but before the song of the ocean is heard many a mile of bushland must be passed. In the winter and in the early spring the piercing northern winds find little to stay their course; they wail and bluster among the helpless pines ; they sing their sombre song down the chimney until one feels chilly and sad. In the late spring and summer the skies are sunny and mild; there is the briny flavor of the ocean in the air, the breeze laden with memories of the sea is tender and caressing. But for the inexorable mosquito one could wish for no kinder starry nights, with their fragrance, their indefinite noises, and their passing music. Then come those incomparable autumn evenings whose coolness does not chill one, but the warm, moist breath of the sea fills the heart with dreams and contentment. The same moon that smiles on the ocean and plays with its waves raises misty shapes over the sandy plain, listens to the song of the whip-poor-will, and to the striduous unceasing music of the cricket hosts. Such is the region where Russian Jews have sought to gain a livelihood from a not over-rich soil.

The first attempts at colonization in South Jersey date back to the early eighties of the nineteenth century. With an enthusiasm that often amounted to a creed, men from different walks of life worked side by side, dreaming of the regeneration of a race too long excluded from the field and the forest. Alliance, Carmel, Rosenhayn, and finally Woodbine grew up and led an existence unique in the history of the race. Had the land been more responsive there would have been fewer neglected acres; as it is the many flourishing farms conquered from the wilderness by Jewish hands bear witness that from among the exiles from Russia there were men of earnest and steadfast purpose who shrunk from no hardship. Many years of self-denial and of unceasing toil have borne their fruit, and while one rejoices with those who succeeded, one cannot help thinking regretfully of those who found themselves compelled to give up the unequal struggle, and returned to the city and the tenement house.

The spring of 1882 marked the arrival of the first Jewish settlers in South Jersey. In the place now called Alliance twenty-five families undertook to do the pioneer work of the settlement. The tract of land, comprising eleven hundred acres, was purchased for the purpose by the Hebrew Emigrant Aid Society. It was for the most part a wilderness of bushland, and the few small areas that showed signs of a once attempted cultivation had again returned to their primitive state. Alliance is located in Pittsgrove township, county of Salem. It is thirty-three miles from Philadelphia, as the crow flies, rather less than five miles from Vineland, about nine miles from Millville, and almost ten miles-from Bridgeton. Carmel and Rosenhayn, situated within a few miles of Alliance, were founded in 1883; the former by Michael Heilprin, the latter by the Hebrew Emigrant Aid Society. Carmel and Rosenhayn are both situated in Cumberland county, the one between Millville and Bridgeton, the other between Bridgeton and Alliance. Finally in 1891, the Woodbine colony was founded by the Baron de Hirsch Fund. Woodbine is in Cape May county, fifty-six miles from Camden and twenty-five miles from Cape May City. Within nine miles of Woodbine is Sea Isle City, and Ocean City is sixteen miles distant. The early days of Alliance, Carmel, Rosenhayn, and even Woodbine had many features in common. They needed all the enthusiasm and determination of the would-be farmers, for it soon became evident that there were almost innumerable difficulties before them. The land had to be cleared and made fit to receive the seed, and months were to pass before any returns could be expected. Meanwhile they were obliged to live in barns or in over-crowded houses. Provisions were scarce, the roads were poor. In Alliance the colonists lived during the first year on $8 to $12 a month given to them by the Hebrew Emigrant Aid Society. In Carmel and Rosenhayn they found what work they could with the neighboring farmers or secured tailoring work from the city. In Woodbine they were more fortunate in that there was enough to do for everybody in clearing a part of the fifty-three hundred acre tract of land, digging cellars, cutting out streets, building roads, and the like. It was hard work, especially for those not used to outdoor life. Yet with all the privations of overcrowded quarters, unsatisfactory food, and lack of warm clothing in the winter months, few complaints were heard. The work on the wind-swept plain was hard, but the management paid living wages and the colonists bore their hardships cheerfully. However, there came a time in the life of Woodbine--as it did with Carmel, Alliance, and Rosenhayn,--when the future seemed full of gloom. When the poor, wild soil did not yield what it could not yield, when willing hands failed to find work that would help fill the bread basket, and when the aid of charity had to be invoked; then there was but little sunshine to cheer the dismal gloom. And the colonists had reason to feel discouraged. Theirs was a thin, shifting soil, which ages ago had been sorted and resorted by the waves, and the ocean was chary about leaving it little besides the rounded grains of quartz which compose 98 per cent. of the soil. Long years of hopeless toil, theirs and their children's, were before them, and after all that work honestly and conscientiously performed what would they have? Unlike the fertile plains of the northwest, or the Tchernosyem of southern Russia, these South Jersey soils call for the application of manures or of commercial fertilizers, and without them they yield scarcely anything. But even with these in their possession the colonists were at a disadvantage. The use of artificial manures requires considerably more knowledge of the soil and of soil conditions than where none are used. The colonists had not that knowledge, nor the knowledge of market conditions in the large cities, or even adequate local markets. Yet if the South Jersey colonies are to attain prosperity as agricultural colonies, or if they are to retain that measure of prosperity which they have already achieved, they must have local markets. It will be shown below that such markets can be had. As to the New York and Philadelphia markets, the colonists found that their produce had to compete with the harvests of the alluvial soils of the east and the south, and the owners of these soils had the experience, the means, and the favorable railroad rates that the South Jersey settlers did not possess. The survival of the four colonies is due to the establishment of factories. In Alliance a cigar factory and later a shirt factory were in operation during the early years. In Carmel and Rosenhayn, the shirt, wrapper, and clothing factories which were in operation at one time or another made possible the agricultural development that has taken place. In Woodbine the establishment of a village and factories was provided for by the founders. Men with large families could send some of their members to the factory while the others worked on the farm; men of small families could sell their produce to those who had none.

The men who came to live in the South Jersey colonies hailed from many parts of European Russia. Poland and Great Russia were well represented, but the greatest number came from South Russia--such as Bessarabia, Podolia, Volhynia, Kiev. Their antecedents were as different as their birth-places. There were among them men who had farmed to some extent in Russia. There were those who had lived in villages and traded there and had become familiar with farming life. There were skilled laborers and small shop-keepers. Among the younger men there were also a few who had enjoyed some educational advantages and were carried to the settlements by their enthusiasm, the desire to help the return of the Jew to agricultural life. This heterogeneous mass, coming as it did from many places, and from different stations in life, was made homogeneous by a common purpose. The early days of the colonies, with their communal life, were marked with a feeling of solidarity. Even the most ignorant settler was not a stranger to the sentiment of a common purpose. In every colony early provision was made for public buildings, and the synagogue and the public school rose side by side. Notwithstanding the similar conditions of settlement, the three older colonies soon came to have very distinctive peculiarities. Alliance from the first devoted more time to agriculture; the appearance of its people, their mode of living, showed the farmer; while in Carmel and Rosenhayn the greater predominance of the tailoring trades showed itself in the physique and to some extent in the radical views that one finds among the factory employees in the East Side of New York.

The life in the South Jersey colonies has produced a visible effect on their inhabitants. It has influenced the thought and action of the older people, it has molded the character and the ways of the young. It offers to both advantages which would not be at their disposal in a large city. Of the settlers in Woodbine seventy-five per cent. own their homes, as do one-half of those in Rosenhayn. The factory life for those who are obliged to work in the factory is not as injurious to health as in the large cities, for the ventilation is better, the space allotted to each is greater, the light and sunshine have more easy access. The relations between employer and employee are more personal, the individual is a more important part of the population and his direct participation in communal affairs reacts favorably on him. If there are no rich men in the colonies, there are also no poor--poor as measured by the standards of the New York Ghetto. The neighbors know one another and are always willing to help those who are less fortunate than themselves. But above all there are the great advantages to the young. The young lungs expand freely in the bracing air; the young eyes roam freely over the wide expanse of field and forest; the young legs run as they will. With the free skies above them, with a healthy home atmosphere surrounding them, with the duties of citizenship instilled into them, and the love for their country growing with them as they grow, they are laying the foundations for normal and useful membership in society. Should the time come when they shall long for a wider sphere of activity than their native village affords, they can go forth equipped in strength and vitality.

With all these advantages there are conditions which place the colonists at a great disadvantage. Those of their number who work in the factory have a very limited field of employment. When the house becomes too small for the farmer he must get along as best he can; when the factory in which his children are employed is idle he is often obliged to run into debt. When his children grow up and find no congenial occupation in the small village they leave him to go to the city to live among strangers and to be exposed to its many temptations. When the crops fail he often finds himself obliged to sell his horse or his cow, and must at times walk miles in order to reach the nearest store or the post-office. He has not as many creature comforts as his city cousin, nor has he his discomforts.
Local differences occur in the soils of Alliance, Carmel, Rosenhayn, and Woodbine, but on the whole, they belong to the same type of soils with a common geological history. The prevailing type is a sandy soil to sandy loam with a clayey to gravelly sub-soil. The underdrainage is excellent and the upper soil, being light and porous, is seldom in danger of becoming waterlogged. Thanks to the splendid underdrainage and openness, the soil is mellow and warm and admirably adapted for the raising of early truck and berries. On the other hand, it is more liable to suffer and actually does suffer in dry seasons for lack of moisture, because of its slight waterholding power. Such is not the case with the heavier soils of North Jersey. Owing to its lightness and shifting character, the surface soil is apt to be blown away by the strong winds in winter and spring. For this reason it is beat not to plow the land in the fall and to keep it covered with some crop during the winter.

The crops raised in the colonies for the local and more distant markets are berries and grapes, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, and fruit. These are the more important crops, and many other crops are raised to a slighter extent. The South Jersey peaches are famed for their delicious flavor; Vineland peaches always find ready buyers, and the Woodbine peaches are fully as good. Then there are sweet potatoes, which have not their equal outside of New Jersey, and they command a correspondingly higher price in the market. The farmers in the colonies raise large quantities of berries, notably strawberries. Part of these are made into wine and have a limited but appreciative circle of patrons. Grape wine is produced in large quantity, particularly in Alliance. Many gallons are sold in New York and Philadelphia, the greater part to supply the Passover trade. It is claimed by competent judges that some of the port wine from the South Jersey colonies is superior to that from California.

In the spring of 1900 a canning factory was established in Alliance. Its short career has already demonstrated its great usefulness and the results that may be expected. There have been canned strawberries, blackberries, cherries, pears, apples, peaches, plums, beans, peas, beets, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, and in smaller quantity, grapes, corn, citrons, huckleberries, cranberries, and gooseberries. The Allivine Company, which owns the canning factory, is also trying to give object lessons on its own farm, and has established lecture courses on agricultural topics. The Jewish farmers thus find a local market for their produce, are rendered independent of the commission merchant in the city, who is at times unscrupulous, and are, moreover, instructed in the proper methods of farming.

Dairying has been receiving considerable attention. The milk produced is sold in the local markets at satisfactory prices. Bridgeton, Vineland, and Millville are convenient markets for the three older colonies, while the milk produced in Woodbine is sold in the village of Woodbine itself, and to a slight extent at the seashore resorts. The dairy of the Baron de Hirsch Agricultural School, conducted according to the most modern methods, and producing milk of the finest quality, tried to run a milk wagon to Ocean City. The milk was in large demand, but the distance was too great and injurious to the horses, and it was therefore decided to dispose of the milk in Woodbine itself. There is no doubt, however, that the several dairymen in Woodbine could combine to establish a milk depot in Ocean City, shipping their milk by rail.

There are, probably, about 4,000 acres under cultivation in the colonies. In the three older settlements there are about 1,100 acres under field crops, 600 acres under truck, 550 acres under berries, and 250 acres under grapes. Of the three, Alliance is by far the most prosperous, and agriculturally the most important. Thus, the value of the Rosenhayn farms, with a total acreage of 1,800, is only about $60,000, whereas that of the Alliance farms, with a total acreage of some 1,700, is about $135,000; and the value of the products sold from the Alliance farms was greater than that of the others put together.

The colonies have not had a continuous growth. Periods of comparative prosperity alternated with periods of depression, depending largely upon the condition of the factories. Woodbine, like the rest, had its periods of depression; nevertheless, its growth has been more steady, and to-day it has a population of about 2,500 persons, while Alliance, Carmel, and Rosenhayn (including Carton Road), taken together, have a population of somewhat about 1,000, and this, notwithstanding that they were founded nine years before Woodbine.

The original 25 families that came to Alliance in 1882 were joined by others until there were in all 67 families in the place. As the hardships increased, many became discouraged and by 1884 only 50 families remained. At this critical time aid was extended to the colonists, and the condition of the colony improved perceptibly. The crop returns gave additional encouragement leading to the increase of the cultivated area. In 1889 the total population was 529, and it has remained about the same. In 1889 the farmers owned 1,400 acres of land, of which 889 were under cultivation; in 1901 they owned 1,702 acres, of which 1,379 were under cultivation. These few figures indicate clearly enough that those of the Alliance settlers who remained on their farms gradually added to their holdings, and have extended their agricultural holdings.

In Carmel there were 16 families that came out in 1882; seven of these left in discouragement; others came to take their places, and the population changed from time to time until in 1889 there were 286 persons in the place. To the original tract of 848 acres 1,500 were added in 1889, and 36 new houses were erected. There are now about 600 persons. In 1889 there were 124 acres cleared; now more than 700.

In Rosenhayn there were 6 families in 1883. In 1889 there were 67 families, containing 294 persons. They owned 1,912 acres, of which 261 were under cultivation. The number of persons has not increased much. In 1901 they owned 1,862 acres, of which 662 were cleared.

In the late summer of 1891 a few men stepped from the train on the old wooden platform of the Woodbine station, located on the West Jersey Railroad. These were the vanguard of the settlers. There was not much to greet them. Three old dwellings stood along the Dennisville road, quite near the station; beyond and around them were the darkening woods. Save for the broad avenue along which their train was even then speeding towards the end of the Cape there was scarcely a dozen square rods free from the untamed oak and pine. As one looks from the new station platform over the hundreds of cottages, at the row of busy factories, and the straight streets with their poplars and maples, he would not recognize the wilderness of thirteen years ago. This is the industrial Woodbine, forming the nucleus around which are clustered about 50 farms. The growth of the village has depended entirely on the growth of its industries, and the activity of the farmers has been regulated by the local market. Of the public buildings in Woodbine there are the Woodbine Central School building, which is used for municipal, educational and social purposes, and the synagogue. Near by is the Talmud Torah (Hebrew school). A Baptist church has been converted into a synagogue. Woodbine has the distinction of having established the first kindergarten in the county. Of the 250 houses in the village, nearly all are owned by the inhabitants. Twenty miles of streets have been laid out and partly graded; 12 miles of farm roads have been built, an electric light plant and pumping station have been established, a volunteer fire brigade has been organized. There are a large hotel in the village, three public schools besides the central school, a public bath house, a meeting hall, and two parks reserved from the forest area. The 50 families that came in 1891 increased in number by the influx of new arrivals until now there are about 2,500. Five building and loan associations have invested thousands of dollars in Woodbine real estate, thus proving their confidence in its stability and prosperity.
Throughout the colonies the mercantile pursuits that have arisen are rather insignificant. Grocery stores and meat markets have been started. Shoe stores, clothing stores, bakeries, and the like have been established to supply local needs. As a possible exception it may be admitted that some stores in Woodbine sometimes serve to supply the needs of neighboring villages. Moreover, the brick yard in Woodbine sells bricks outside of the village, and considerable quantities of cord wood are sold from Woodbine to the Millville, Vineland and other glass factories.
Recent statistics show that there are a considerable number of factories in the colonies. Alliance has a cloak factory and a canning factory ; Rosenhayn has a clothing factory and a brick yard, and manufactures to some extent tinware and hosiery. Carmel has a clothing factory, and two others where ladies' waists and wrappers are manufactured. Woodbine has a clothing factory, a machine and tool plant, a hat factory, a shirt factory, a small cigar factory, a knit goods factory, an establishment for making driven well points, and a brick yard.

As compared to the dormant existence of the small villages in South Jersey, the Jewish colonies are wide awake and progressive. There is a greater range of social questions discussed there. There is the consciousness of common aims. Political clubs, social clubs, literary societies, military organizations, benevolent organizations have been established, and many are contributing to a better and broader life. Though most of the voters have been naturalized in recent years they display an intelligent interest in national as well as in local politics. It may sound strange, yet it is true, that, unlike their neighbors, they consider national and international affairs above the local affairs. This seems to be characteristic of the Jew. He watches with deep concern the happenings in various countries, as if he felt himself a citizen of the whole world. World politics, the events which concern all men, are to him of paramount interest. It may be that his long wanderings have taught him to assume this mental attitude. It may be that this habit of thought is inherent in him, yet the visitor to Woodbine, for instance, can convince himself of the truth of the above observation. On a Saturday afternoon he will find the older people of the village gathered in the post-office or in the railroad station warmly discussing the happenings in Germany, France, or Russia. The sewing machine, the plow, or the lathe are forgotten for the moment. Dressed in his Sabbath clothes and wrapped in the Sabbath mood, he looks into the outside world and judges it according to his light. The Jewish newspaper informs him in Yiddish of the doings outside his own narrow sphere of activity and with this information as a basis he indulges in endless discussion.

It is otherwise with his children. Growing up as they do under freer skies, they imbibe something of the new spirit. The old traditions are not as infallible to them as to their fathers and their thoughts wander in other directions. For them the English newspaper replaces the Yiddish, the school history is a greater authority than oral tradition. And yet they are not altogether unmindful of this tradition. They stand between the old and the new. They are in a transition stage, and they partake of what their fathers are, and also of what their own children will be. They are Americans, with a touch of the foreign spirit still clinging to them, but somehow they do not seem to be the worse for it. Their home life is healthy, there is no viciousness, and little disobedience to established authority. They are fond of dancing, of private theatricals, and of social gatherings in general. The factory atmosphere is often reflected in their mode of thought. It is no rare occurrence to see boys of fifteen or sixteen discussing in all seriousness some question in sociology, or political economy, of which they know little or nothing.

Most of the factories are closed on Saturday. The elders solemnly repair to the synagogue and as solemnly return when the services are over. The village is in a Sabbath spirit, peaceful yet joyous. When evening comes there is usually some entertainment.

Theft and drunkenness are practically unknown in the colonies, although wine and beer are consumed in considerable quantities. But there are features which are less fortunate and not at all commendable. One comes across ignorance and narrowness, stubbornness of spirit and uncleanliness of person. Yet even these are not as frequent as they used to be. But there is one feature that deserves mention--this is the neighborly spirit, and the true charity that the colonists display. Quietly, unostentatiously, they help one another, often sharing the last crust of bread. When the severe winter days come, men often walk a long distance to cut some fire wood for a sick neighbor; women frequently walk for miles through the snow in order to bring food or money to a needy individual. The women in Woodbine have organized a Woman's Aid Society and the good work it is doing deserves commendation. Those who are inclined to accuse the Russian Jew of unwillingness to work, and of dependence upon charity, will find upon visiting the South Jersey colonies, only peaceful and industrious people always ready to work. There are no loafers, no tramps, no gamblers.

The colonists spend a considerable portion of their income on public buildings. They have their lodges, circulating libraries, evening schools, lecture courses and the like, and this healthy social and home life speaks well for the individuals and the community.

The many vicissitudes through which the colonists have passed have left their mark. Some of the earlier settlers have returned to the city population, and in their leisure moments recount perhaps the hardships which confronted them. It is for them to decide whether they acted wisely. But those who stayed have continued to do their work. They have not attained great wealth, nor great fame, but they have lived and honestly earned their bread.

Let those who have so generously worked to found the colonies remember that the mere withdrawing of people from the tenement districts in the great cities and their settling in the country is in itself a worthy work, and if there should be ten per cent., or even one per cent. of these settlers who entirely depend on farming, the work remains worthy. Let the colonies have more factories. The farmers will take care of themselves, and the greater the local demand for their produce, the greater will be the area under cultivation. If the liberal policy of inducing reliable manufacturers to establish themselves in Woodbine is continued by the Trustees of the Baron de Hirsch Fund there is little doubt that the next ten years will see considerable growth.

The experience of years brought out quite clearly the fact that it is practically impossible in many instances to convert a small trader into a farmer. The ancestral conditions and the habits of a lifetime cannot be changed at a moment's notice. Earnest as is the purpose of the would-be farmer, and great as is his determination, he very often finds himself obliged to admit that the opportunity has come to him too late in life. The occupation of a lifetime has unfitted him for farming. With this experience in mind the founders of the Baron de Hirsch Agricultural School at Woodbine have formulated a plan for the education of the children of immigrant Jews. In the few years of its existence the school has given ample proof of its usefulness. It aims to give its pupils a practical, agricultural education, in order that the graduates may (after an apprenticeship of some years with practical farmers) be competent to manage farms of their own. The school has now about 120 pupils, of whom about ten per cent. are girls. Theoretical instruction in the classroom is given together with practical work on the school farms, in the dairy, blacksmith shop, poultry houses, green houses, etc.

Independently of the Woodbine school, an agricultural school has been established at Doylestown, Pa. The curriculum is somewhat different from that of the Woodbine school, but its aim, as in the other case, is primarily the instruction of the children of immigrants in the arts of husbandry.

The work of these two institutions is watched with deep interest. The visitor to the schools, as he sees the boys working in the fields, or as he watches them in their moments of recreation, rushing a foot ball against the opposing line, or running on a base ball field, cannot but feel glad and hopeful. He remembers the stooping, narrow-chested men in the crowded thoroughfares, he remembers the long centuries of artificial Ghetto life, and he rejoices for those who shall grow broad of shoulder and brawny of arm, who shall have laughter in their eyes, who shall contribute as great a share to the physical work of the world as has been contributed by their race to the mental and the spiritual life.


Individual Jewish farmers are scattered through the New England states, and own farms in Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Maine, Vermont, and New Hampshire. By far the greater number are located in Connecticut, and they form the most important section of the Jewish farming community in New England. The first settlement dates back to 1891, when a Jewish family, having saved some money by work in a New England mill, purchased a farm near New London, Connecticut. The gregarious instincts of the race, and particularly the desire for adequate religious life, led this family to exert itself in inducing friends and relatives to establish themselves in the neighborhood. In 1892 a creamery was erected by the Baron de Hirsch Fund, and new settlers established themselves in the vicinity of New London, Oakdale, Palmerton, Chesterfield, and Salem. In 1893 a number of Russian Jews employed in the woolen mills, then in operation in Colchester, invested their savings in the purchase of farms in the neighborhood. Having had experience with dairy farming in Russia, they found it more profitable to devote themselves to dairy farming on their new lands. Most of these settled in New London County and also in the neighboring counties of Middlesex and Hartford. Some farmers also located about eight miles from Bridgeport and New Haven. These two cities are excellent markets for dairy products, and but for the great cost of land near the cities the settlers would have established themselves nearer to the market towns.

The position of the Jewish farmers in New England is quite different from that of the colonists in South Jersey. The character of their land, their methods of farming, the market conditions are all different. Yet the greatest distinction is due to their comparative isolation from their coreligionists. They do not have distinct Jewish agricultural colonies like those in New Jersey; they bought farms where they could get them, and are therefore surrounded in most cases by Yankee neighbors. These played a momentous part in molding the farming life of the Jewish settlers. The latter had many difficulties to contend with. Beginning with limited means and a limited knowledge of their environment they were placed at a still greater disadvantage by the exhausted condition of their land; because of their comparatively small means they found themselves obliged to purchase some of the so-called "abandoned farms." These are farms which had been treated carelessly and unscientifically for generations until their productivity was so reduced as to render them unprofitable for further cultivation. In many cases their owners found themselves compelled to sell them for a much smaller price than the cost of the buildings alone. It is evident that the improvement and the profitable cultivation of such exhausted land requires the unceasing work and care of years. The fact that 90 per cent. of the Jewish farmers remain on their lands speaks much in their favor. Notwithstanding their limited capital, their insufficient knowledge, and the poverty of the land, they gradually accustomed themselves to their new surroundings, adapted themselves to the ways of their Yankee neighbors, and are now successfully pursuing their new vocation. The friendship and advice of these neighbors help them at critical moments, and it was the children who in many instances threw the parents together, for the Jewish children soon learned to know their schoolmates and formed friendships which grew until they included the parents.

Dairy farming is the occupation of most of the New England settlers. It is peculiarly adapted to their land and has been productive of greater profit than market gardening or fruit growing. In dairy farming but little of the fertility of the soil is sold off the farm. The comparatively large number of cattle and the feeding material purchased make possible a more thorough manuring of the land than would be practicable with the same expenditure in any other kind of farming. As a result of this the New England farms are being improved gradually, and are growing more productive from year to year. Moreover dairy products find in New England a ready sale at good prices, and thus yield to the farmer almost immediate cash returns. The Jewish farmers utilize the large markets of Hartford, New London, and Norwich for cream and butter. Large quantities of milk are sold at the creameries in Colchester and Chesterfield. The former is a very important milk centre and is situated at the end of a short branch of the air line division of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Road, and is about three miles from Turnerville, on the main line. Colchester has a separating plant which offers very good prices for milk. From 3 to 31/2 cents per quart are paid there, and in the large market it is sold according to the market quotations.

The Jewish farmers realize the value of modern methods. They are careful, in many instances, to select the very best cows that they can get. They have built a number of silos for the preservation of corn. They follow the instructions of their experiment station officers in regard to the compounding of rations for their cattle. On many farms the equipment is still incomplete, but the officers of the Jewish Agricultural and Aid Society have taken an active interest in the affairs of the Jewish farmers and are not backward in extending aid and encouragement where they are needed most.
Like the colonists in South Jersey, the Jewish farmers in New England had various occupations in Europe. Most of them, however, were either artisans or petty traders. Men with large families were more certain of success, for at the beginning at least they were obliged to look for a part of their income to the mill or factory. The enthusiasm that marked the early days of the South Jersey colonies was not lacking here. The farmers went to work and bore their hardships bravely. They seemed to have imbibed something of the spirit of their Yankee neighbors, for they show much self-reliance and independence of character. In their religious life they are as a rule orthodox and provide for the instruction of their children in Hebrew and Jewish history. There is also a measure of social life, particularly during the holidays. Their relations with one another are friendly, and they represent on the whole an intelligent portion of the Russian immigrants.

Most of the farms were purchased by the settlers at two-thirds the original costs of the buildings. The purchase price varied from $1,200 td $1,500 with an immediate cash payment of one-third to one-half the purchase price. The houses are in most cases frame buildings, and the farms are supplied with the necessary outbuildings. The land is rolling or hilly, and the soil is gravelly or loamy. Although the most important branch of agriculture that is followed is dairy farming, they also engage in truck farming, grain growing, poultry keeping, and fruit growing. A beginning has been made in the construction and management of green houses. A number of farmers have purchased incubators, and are raising chickens for the market. Like their Yankee neighbors, they derive an important part of their income from summer boarders. Many Jewish people from New York and Boston prefer to board with Jewish farmers in New England, because of the kosher board that can be secured. This "agricultural industry," if it may be called such, offers the additional advantage to the farmers that they have a home market for the products of their farms. The canning of tomatoes has also been started at Colchester, and gives promise of greater development. The Jewish farmers of New England utilize their grapes for wine making and in some cases earn a little money in lumbering and the cutting of railroad ties. The children of a number of the farmers work in the small mills near Oakdale, Norwich, and Palmerton, and thus contribute something to the resources of their families. Yet the New England farmers depend upon the factories but to a limited extent, and these do not play the important part in their life that they do in the life of the South Jersey colonists.

There are probably about 400 Jewish farmers in the New England states. The farms average about 100 acres each, and the total acreage is therefore about 40,000. On the average there are probably ten head of cattle on each farm, and enough horses to do the farm work. The Jewish farmers are gradually paying off their obligations and improving their holdings. Their future in New England has much promise.

(B) Western States

In describing the condition of the Jewish farmers located in the north-western states of the Union as observed by the writer, who, accompanied by Mr. William Kahn, of the Jewish Agricultural and Industrial Aid Society, of New York, visited the homes of a large number of these people during the summer of 1903, more than a mere narrative to gratify the curious is intended. How the Jew lives and works as an agriculturalist in America must be of the deepest interest to every well-meaning and earnest Jew and Jewess. For, however favorable the "chances" city life offers to the poor Jewish immigrant from Russia and Roumania to rise from a peddler to an importer or from a sweat-shop operator to a manufacturer, it is the farm that holds the true key to a difficult situation. Less than a decade or two ago it seems to have been a conviction with even the best of our people that the city offers larger opportunities for the immigrant Jew. Here, it was held, he can lift himself into prominence by means of the industries. The educational institutions, too, it was held, will develop the talents of his children; his son may become a lawyer, physician, or a professor; his daughter may attend the university and become learned in the classics, or she may become an artist, a vocalist, or a pianist. These "chances" are good in the city, while on the farm the Jew will drop out from the world's noticing eye and become, at best, a producer of the plain Irish potato and the artless yellow pumpkin. Such argument seems to have been convincing to many not very long ago. But there is "not the ill wind which blows no man good." The heavier Jewish immigration to the United States caused a wiser attitude. The newer condition as it developed among the Jews living in the congested quarters in the larger cities has taken off the sharp edge of the "chance-in-the-city" argument and the advisability of having the Jewish poor apply themselves to agriculture is no longer questioned by any thinking Jew.

But while the advisability of bringing the Jew to farming is generally acceded, the feasibility of such a movement is still an open question with many. Can and will the Jew make a successful farmer is a question of more than passing concern to those who, much as they would assist in the movement, cannot bring themselves to believe that the Jew is capable of making farming a successful calling. It is, therefore, for the purpose of forcing home the conviction of the Jew's willingness and ability to till the soil that the following facts and figures concerning the Jewish farmers are given publicity. What is told of conditions is the statement of an eye-witness, what is drawn and concluded by inference is based on years of experience in the work of assisting Jewish poor to make farming their calling, and what is given as impressions is the result of careful study and close observation among these farmers in their own homes and surroundings.

Before relating, however, what was seen and learned on these visits to the various farmers in Dakota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana and Illinois, it is deemed proper--and it will surely prove news to many--to state that, most conservatively estimated, there are more than one thousand Jewish farmers located in the territory west of the Alleghenys and east of the Rocky Mountains. With nearly three hundred of these Jewish farmers the Jewish Agriculturists' Aid Society of America (whose office is in Chicago) is more or less in constant touch. These farmers are engaged exclusively in agriculture; no other industry is followed by them save what comes within the sphere of their calling. They are actively engaged in all forms of the work; from gardening and dairy farming near the cities in Illinois to wheat farming and cattle raising in the Dakotas; from truck farming in Florida to diversified farming in Indiana and Wisconsin; from fruit farming in Michigan to cotton raising in Oklahoma. They were all, at the outset, unfamiliar with the work of farming as it is carried on in this country, but, thanks to their untiring energy, they have succeeded--some most admirably, others quite satisfactorily--in their undertaking. There can be little doubt as to the ultimate success of these willing workers, among whom, more than anything else, is manifest a spirit of great contentment and a true delight in their new calling.

After a forty hours' trip from Chicago by way of St. Paul and Bismarck to Wilton, North Dakota, we left the railroad and started on a tour through the country. Going eighteen miles northwest of Wilton we came to the farm of L. C. This farmer is one of the latest arrivals in North Dakota, he having come out from New York with his wife and eight children at the end of last year. He is located, like all our farmers in Dakota, on a homestead of 160 acres, and though this is his first summer on a farm he has made considerable improvement on the place. He has broken 35 acres of land, 32 of which he has put in flax and the balance in corn, potatoes and garden stuff. He has the assistance of a son, eighteen years of age, and a younger daughter, who, like Whittier's "Maud Muller" does not shun raking the hay on a hot summer day. On our arrival at the farm we found these two young people in the field "haying"; the son on the mower, and the girl on the hay rack, and they were at it with a readiness as if they had been accustomed to it from early childhood. The father was busy putting a curbing in the well, and was assisted by one of his younger children. Another one of his boys was herding the cows. The best help, however, this man has is his good wife. Her hand is visible in every part of the home. The modest dwelling they erected was not yet completed. It was in a condition to afford shelter for the summer but not for winter. In spite of its incompleteness the house was arranged to afford the best comfort to the large family of ten people that occupies it. Both husband and wife are appreciative of the situation. They know that there is great work before them, but they are ready for it, and the satisfaction they expressed at having reached even this state in their undertaking, their hopefulness for the future, and the cheerfulness with which they and their children are at their work, augurs well for their success. They are the people who indeed will succeed. An incident which occurred while we were at the house of this family deserves special mention. It illustrates the good quality of the people; a quality essential in the character of those Jews who desire to build up their homes and establish themselves as agriculturists. The C. family, prior to making their homestead entry, conducted a grocery store on the East Side in New York City. Among the relics of that time is a photograph showing the whole family arrayed in all the pomp and finery becoming the position of an East Side grocery merchant. On that photograph the father appears with a heavy watch chain, the mother with her earrings and finger rings, while the children are bedecked with laces and ribbons in great profusion. Noticing this family picture we ventured to remark on the fine appearance of the family, and suggested that here on the farm such finery will hardly be appreciated, as there are so few people to notice it. In answer to our remark the woman said: "We are glad we shall not need it. There in New York we worked for the dress and nothing more, here we dress to work and work for a home."

About four miles from this farm are located the homesteads of T, and I. K., father and son. They entered on their homesteads a few months before our visit. They also came from New York, where the other members of the family--mother and children--were left. Having come to their farms at the early spring, they had to go to land-breaking and hence could not build their home so as to enable them to bring the family to the farm. On our arrival at their "shack," we found them preparing for haying. They had built a stable, dug a well and cellar, and the material for their dwelling was on the place ready to be put up as soon as time would permit them to do so. In the field they had done good work. They had broken 40 acres of land, seeded it in flax, which was in an excellent state. The "breaking" which was done by the son, an ex-cloak maker, showed that it did not take the young man much time to learn how to guide the plow. The acreage worked indicated that the work, so well done, was accomplished in a reasonably quick time. Speaking with this family of the change they had made and of the many hardships they had already endured, and which they will still have to endure before they will be able to have their family comfortably housed on the farm, they expressed their absolute confidence in the future, asserted that they will shun no work and mind no difficulty in carrying out their intention of making the homesteads in reality what they were now but in name.

From here we drove eight miles, south by east, passing the homesteads of J. M. and M. Z., whom we expected to meet at the farm of M. brothers, the place of our destination. The M. brothers' farm, with its large dwelling house, stables and outhouses, its live stock of nine horses, five cows, and as many calves, makes an attractive showing. The dwelling house is situated on a somewhat elevated place and is visible from quite a distance. As we drew near we noticed the cattle in the pasture, the light green fields of young grain and the darker green of the young flax stretching before us in large patches, the whole forming a picture indicating life, human energy, and intelligent activity.
The brothers M. are Roumanians who came to this country within the last few years. One of them came to America during the early part of 1899, and the other two followed him a year later. To a limited extent they followed agriculture in their native home, but, here in America they, like most of the newcomers from Russia, Roumania and Galicia, went to the city--Chicago, in this instance--where they found the usual employment in the sweat-shop and in the picture frame factory. Accustomed to rural life and to work in the open air they could not well bear the change the new condition imposed upon them. Especially did the wife of the oldest brother suffer by this change. She could not endure the life in the congested quarters in the city and fell sick. Learning of the work of the Jewish Agriculturists' Aid Society of America, these people, together with Max Z., a brother of the wife of one of the M.'s and a young man of exceptionally fine physique, made application for a loan to enable them to take up the work of farming. Their application received favorable consideration at the hands of the directors of the society and loans aggregating the sum of $2,000 were granted to them. They located on homesteads in Burleigh County, North Dakota, and though this was their first season on their homesteads they were already well established. They have over eighty acres under cultivation on their various homesteads. Most of the acreage is seeded in flax with every prospect of a good yield. On one of the homesteads they built a commodious six-room house, on the other a large barn, and with the smaller buildings on the other homesteads, cellar, stable and sheds, their improvements in this respect represent a value of twelve hundred dollars or more. Their live stock is worth more than one thousand dollars, and with wagons, harness, buggy and other implements they offer ample security for the money loaned to them. More than this security, however, must be counted their eagerness and ability to improve their estates.

Our next stopping place was at the farm of V. B. We arrived here after dark and were cordially greeted by Mr. and Mrs. B., who expressed their delight at the opportunity of having us stay at their home over night. Entering the house we found that our hosts had already some company. Two boys, sons of one of the Jewish farmers in the neighborhood, were here. Their father had purchased a cow and a calf from a farmer a few miles away, and the boys were on their way home with the purchase. They had yet about six miles to their home, and turned in here for the night, expecting to start again on their journey with the break of day. Expressing our doubt as to the ability of our hosts to shelter so many guests in their home, we were assured that there was plenty of room for all. It was, indeed, pleasing to note with what cheerfulness the hospitality was extended; a cheerfulness which partook of a sense of thankfulness to Divine Providence for having granted the blessings that made possible the hospitality.

For the first three years on their homesteads the occupants lived in a sod-house erected by their own hands, which afforded them a mere shelter. They did bide their time, and in 1902 were able to build for themselves a modest but comfortable home. They look with just pride on the work they have accomplished. They have one of the finest quarter-sections in the township. Sixty-five acres of this they have under cultivation. They have eight milch-cows, three heifers and calves, five horses and a colt, besides all the machinery and implements. They are indebted, all told, to the amount of a little over $1,000, but their estate is worth to-day three times that amount, and the money they owe is well secured. Five years ago these people arrived here in Chicago from Russia. The man went to work in a sweat-shop, earning from six to seven dollars a week. He soon learned that the conditions in the city were not promising for him, and he applied for a loan in order to take up a homestead of free government land. At first a loan of $600 was granted to him, and with that--not having a dollar of his own--he started at his venture. The family went through considerable hardship, but were not daunted.

An object lesson of how the Jew will live as a farmer was given through a slight incident which happened while we were at this farm. It has always been maintained by the writer that the Jew, with his high regard for life and his indomitable ambition to make life bright and worthy, will, when he takes to farming, broaden the view of the agriculturists and do much towards dispelling the odium which hangs on to the "hay-seed" by reason of his proverbial narrow-mindedness. While at the breakfast table in the home of our friend B., the hostess waited on us and talked to us of the future plans of the family. Among others she states that, if the crop turned out as expected, she could go the coming fall to Bismarck to have a tooth fixed. During the afternoon we had occasion to visit the home of a non-Jewish farmer with whom we had some dealings in the past. This farmer is an old settler and quite well-to-do. As we drove into his yard we pulled up before a low shed covered with straw, the house of this farmer. We found that our man was not at home. His wife came to the door, barefooted, and as she spoke one could not fail to notice the exceedingly bad condition of her teeth. This made a decided impression, and a thought not unfamiliar came forcibly upon us. Here was an old settled farmer whose possessions were worth ten times as much as those of his Jewish neighbor, housed in a one-room shed, compared with which the house of our friend B. is a veritable palace. The Jewish farmer's wife having one defective tooth is ready to have it attended to, while the wife of the other, if not wholly ignorant of the existence of the dentist, seems never to have thought of availing herself of the good service of that individual. What a difference in the conception of life. Oh, for the day when the Jew will again be a farmer! The Jewish seer's dream of beautiful homes, where every man will dwell peacefully and contentedly under his own vine and fig-tree, can best be realized through the Jewish conception of life and by the Jewish tiller of the soil. In more than one way has the Jew brought home to the world the lessons of life, teaching the way to sweeten and to beautify it.

From the V. B. farm we went to the house of H. B. This man has the distinction of being the first settler in his township. He came here from Chicago four years ago, and pitched his tent in the open country, several miles away from any neighbor. He had the choice of the best lands and be selected a fine homestead. He was, however, not long without neighbors. Within less than two years the homesteads in his township were taken, and to-day there is not an acre of free government land left unoccupied in his vicinity. We found B. in the field cutting hay. He was on the mower looking every inch a farmer. There was nothing about him which would denote the uninitiated worker. There was a fine span of horses before the machine, harnessed after the most approved farmer's style. The mower, too, though four years old, was in excellent condition--the whole outfit equal to any that can be found among the Swedish, Norwegian, and German farmers in the vicinity. We drove along his farm looking at the crops. He had nearly one hundred acres under cultivation, forty of which were seeded in wheat and spelt, though with a poor prospect of any yield. He had, however, nigh fifty acres in flax which is in excellent condition. He had also a few acres in corn, and oats, besides potatoes, beans, beets, etc. His live-stock, consisting of seven horses and twelve head of horn cattle, we also found to be in splendid condition, and it alone easily represents a value fully covering the amount of the indebtedness of this farm.

In the extreme northern portion of McLean County, in township 150, Range 78, are located sixteen Jewish homesteaders. The homesteads are all within a radius of about twelve miles, the nearest being about eight miles from Balfour. Our first visit was to the homesteads of the R. family. This family, consisting of father, two married sons and a son-in-law, have entered on four homesteads, two of which are located together while the others are about two miles apart. Considering the short time they had been on their respective homesteads--having filed their entries the winter before--the improvements they made bear evidence not only of their willingness to work as farmers but, what is more important, of their ability to do so. They built a large barn which was serving them as shelter until the house under construction would be ready for them. They also erected stables for their cattle, dug wells, constructed cellars and made the necessary fences around their yards. They had nearly one hundred acres under cultivation, eighty of which were seeded in flax, and, they had, at the time of our visit, made nearly forty tons of hay. Their live stock consisted of eight horses, three cows, two heifers and three calves. We stayed for more than a day and had an opportunity to observe the farmers at their work. The favorable impression which we had of these people was strengthened by this observation.

From here we went about ten miles south where, in township 149, we came to the homestead of G. This settler had come out from New York with his wife and eight children during the fall of 1902. He was assisted by the Jewish Agricultural and Industrial Aid Society and established himself upon a fine tract of fertile land. Though about eighteen miles away from the railroad, the homestead has been wisely chosen, it being well watered and free from stony and alcoholated patches so often found in the prairies of the Dakotas. G. has built for himself a comfortable dwelling, a good barn and stable, and has broken over forty acres of land since he settled upon his homestead. He has four horses, two cows and two calves. He has the assistance of his eldest son, seventeen years of age, and of a good wife who looks after the comfort of her husband and children. About a mile away to the west is located a sister of Mr. G., a widow with her three children. It this vicinity also are located two young men, who, not being able to find any free government land nearer their own homes, came out further west and located in McLean County. We found them here on their claims engaged in hay-making, but who expected by the following year to begin the improvements on their homesteads as required by the law. In this connection it is also worthy of mention that six more young men, sons of Jewish farmers of Ramsey County, had the previous spring gone as far west as Ward County, and located as homesteaders. The action of these young men is a telling answer to the often repeated question, "Will the sons of our Jewish settlers stay farmers!" We had occasion to speak with these young men and from all we could ascertain we are convinced that it would require very strong inducements to bring them to live in the city. They love the country and their chosen vocation, and are on their respective homesteads to stay and work as agriculturists.

Another young man broke fifty-four acres of land during last spring. He also is the son of a farmer located in Ramsey County. The boy was about eight years of age when he came with his father to the farm. He has grown up at the work, and has now filed an entry for a homestead of his own in McLean County. He came to his homestead equipped with the necessary implements and live stock, all of which are in first-class shape and condition, and second to none that can be found in charge of any young farmer in the state. A third Jewish young boy, who two years ago, was working in a factory in Chicago, broke forty acres of land during the spring. This is excellent work for a novice. Undoubtedly the good example of his young friends, their valuable advice, and their encouraging words, have contributed no little to the success of this novice farmer. Seeing these three young men together, one could not help being thoroughly impressed with the absurdity of the usual saw that the Jew cannot or will not make a farmer. It would be hard indeed to find in any farmer community three young men better equipped and more willing to do the work and lead the life of the farmer.
From McLean County we went by way of Minot down to St. Paul, and from there to Northern Wisconsin where we visited some of our older settlers in that vicinity. We have here some Jewish farmers who have, so to speak, grown up with the country; having purchased wild lands about ten years ago when the country was but very sparingly settled. Unfamiliar with the work they were to perform and unaccustomed to a life of such thorough seclusion as was necessarily theirs in this new country, they endured much trial and privation. However, they have suffered and labored till they have learned and succeeded, and they are today well established in a most fertile country, surrounded by kind and pleasant neighbors, with whom they stand on an equal footing as self-respecting producers. A more contented people than our Jewish farmers in Burron County, Wisconsin, will be hard to find anywhere, and their contentment is well founded.

We cannot refrain from giving, as concisely as possible, the story of one of our families located in this vicinity. It will illustrate the possibilities farming holds for even the poorest among the poor, and will also demonstrate the fact that the means applied in helping the Jewish poor, ready and willing to work, to change the condition from poverty to affluence need be no waste of money, but an interest-bearing investment, ample and well secured. Nine years ago the family in question, consisting of husband, wife, and six children, the oldest of whom was a boy of thirteen years of age, lived in the city in dire poverty. The husband worked in a factory, earning eight dollars per week when work was plentiful. Through sickness in the family he fell back in paying the rent for his house, and within less than a year the family was evicted three times. With the assistance of the Jewish Agriculturists' Aid Society the family removed from the city to the farm. Eighty acres of wild land were purchased--title being taken in the man's name--and after the most necessary buildings had been erected on the premises, a few implements and some live stock obtained, the family was indebted to the society to the amount of over $1,000. After the first year on the farm our friend was in a position that required further aid from the society, and $200 more was invested to enable the man to hold out on the farm. After the lapse of the second year the family was able to maintain itself, but was unable to pay even the few dollars of taxes levied against the property. The progress the people made during the first years on the farm was slow. The work they did was very superficial. No one could handle the tools needed on such a farm properly, and it was not until after the family had been five years on the farm that the society felt justified in purchasing suitable tools and placing them at the disposal of the people. All these years advances of various sums of money had to be made in order to help them. These sums, together with the interest of four per cent. on all amounts advanced, brought up the indebtedness of this family to nearly $1,500. During this time, while the process of turning the Jewish family who, like other Jewish families, were not farmers, into a people of the soil, not a few insisted that the money was wasted. In fact, a gentleman who, four years ago, went out west for the purpose of visiting the Jewish farmers and investigating their condition, and who also visited the family in question, was not slow in asserting that the society is "sinking money on that farm." The society, however, disregarded these statements and went, as this society always does, the full length of its endeavor, and the desired end has been attained. The family today is not only in a position to make the annual payments on its indebtedness, but has already an equity of $1,500 in the estate. Fully sixty acres of the wild lands have been cleared and the property, with the buildings on it, is marketable for $2,500 at any time. This price has been set upon the farm by the bank at Barron, as being so reasonable that a purchaser for the property can be had for it at a day's notice. Besides the equity in the land, the family has six cows, four heifers, four steers, three calves, a fine span of horses, a farmer wagon, a light spring wagon, all the implements, among which there is a mower, a rake and binder, besides plows, harrows, etc., and a stump-puller that cost over $100. It need hardly be added that the indebtedness of the family is now well secured and that the money invested has not been "sunk," but judiciously and advantageously applied. It should be stated, however, that while the family having learned the work, is now in a position to pay back what has been advanced on its account, it is at the same time improving the property and within six or eight years, when the full amount of the indebtedness will have been paid, will be in possession of an estate of from six to eight thousand dollars. But while the repayment of the investment has been assured, and a nice little estate created for that poor family, the Jewish Agriculturists' Aid Society has worked for an aim by far higher than the one to which can be applied a money standard. The people have been raised from a condition of depending, cringing poverty to the dignified state of self-reliant manhood.

Numerous other instances could be given showing the satisfactory progress made by the protégés of the Jewish Agriculturists' Aid Society of America. However, the foregoing descriptions fully suffice to point the great lesson which American Jewry must, of sheer necessity, learn and take to heart. Nor can it be overlooked that the success attained by these Jewish farmers is due to their own efforts and to the readiness and willingness with which they undertook the work. True, they had to be assisted in order to be able to take up the work, but it was their own perseverance and the undaunted courage with which they bore the hardships and privations incidental to the undertaking that assured success. To say that the Jew is no farmer is simply stating an accepted fact, but to maintain that he will not become a successful farmer is a grave error. What the few hundred Jews have attained and are attaining by tilling the soil in our western states, many thousands of the Jewish poor that at present are crowding the settlements in the cities will attain if they are given the chance. This fact cannot be too strongly emphasized. In the face of existing conditions, under which it is apparent that the Jewish centre of gravity is shifting from the Russian Pale of Settlement to America, the fact that the Jew will successfully work as an agriculturist is of the upmost importance; it is the essential in the proper adjustment of the social-economic position of the Jew in America. Whatever might have been the political, economic, and religious condition of the Jew in the old world, here in America his complete emancipation can be accomplished. Nothing will aid more effectively in the consummation of this end than his employment at agriculture.







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