Lives in the Yiddish Theatre


Boris Thomashefsky
(translation in progress....)


Born in 1886 in Ositniashke, a village in Kiev Gubernia, Ukraine. Raised in the nearby location of Kamionke (Kamenka), where his grandfather was the city's cantor. Father -- a cantor, later an actor and playwright in America.

At the age of eleven, he left home for Berdichev, where he became a choir boy for (Cantor) Nisan Belzer.

In a memoir article written by T., he wrote: "At age thirty-two [according to T.'s account, it was in 1881, one must accept it as 1879] I stood here for two-and-a-half years as a first soprano and ripped my lungs for the Berdichev audience. For Kapilovski....more to translate....

(bottom, p. 812) In 1890, There performed the known actors of New York: Sophie and Moshe Karp, Sonia Chaimowitz-Heine [later -- Feinman]. Then T. went to Chicago, where he acted together with Jacob P. Adler  in the Standard Theatre, again in a theatre [Halsted Street, near Depiuster(?) Street], under the name of "Adler-Thomashefsky Theatre", and also brought therein the "Professor" Horowitz with his play "The Johnstown Flood". From then on, T. was invited by Adler to act in his New York Poole's Theatre (8th Street), where the productions were performed on Fridays, Shabbes and Sunday. Here a conflict broke out between T. and Adler, due to a role. Adler left Poole's Theatre, and T. became the sole proprietor there. However after several productions, T. left the theatre and went again to Chicago, where he acted for several weeks in Jefferson Hall (Jefferson Street. Manager -- Rubinstein), and then in the Standard Theatre, wherein there also arrived the New York actors Mogulesko, Feinman, Israel and Sabina Weinblatt, later also Adler and Sonia Chaimowitz-Heine.

(top, p. 813) In the 1890-1891 season, T. was engaged, with his wife, for New York's Roumanian Opera House, and here there was staged Joseph Lateiner's "Asht khil, oder, Di eyngeshparte printsesin". On 18 January 1892 T. performed for the first time in a Gordin role as "Pavlik trubatsh" in Gordin's first play "The Pogrom in Russia" (under the providence of the author), but soon he returned to Lateiner's repertoire ("Dinahle, oder, A gast fun yener velt").

Due to the concurrence of the newly-arrived actors from Europe (Bernstein, Fishkind, Tabachnikoff, Mary and Bernard Wilensky), who had acted in Adler's Union Theatre, T. abandoned the Roumanian Opera House, and for the 1892-1893 season took over the management of Chaimowitz, Adolf Printz, Levy and Sheinberg, in that until then the German Thalia Theatre, where he staged Lateiner's "Aleksander, oder, Der kroynprints fun yerushalayim" (T. in the title role).

About his success in that play, Bessie Thomashefsky in her memoirs recalls: "My husband had a great success with that play. The role of "Aleksander" had provided him with many followers. He appeared as a prince, much more beautiful than a prince, just the beauty alone! ....more to translate...." 'My king,' she wrote, 'He is my king, the beautiful Aleksander'."

In the same season T. staged his play "Eyne nakht in bliker strit (A Night in Bleecker Street), oder, Dos ungliklikhe medkhen (The Unfortunate Girl)", a drama with singing and dance", adapted from the English melodrama "The Wages of Sin", and Lateiner's "Kurkh's utsrus" and "Bat sheba" (20 October 1893).

Due to the concurrence at the nearby Windsor Theatre, T. also staged for the first time on the Yiddish stage (24 November 1893) Seifert's "adaptation" of Shakespeare's "Hamlet".

When the theatre world at that time took in the offering, Bessie Thomashefsky recalls in her memoirs:

"The public...more to translate....We had performed the play for several weeks and did good business, but one trouble was that the audience applauded, cried and called for the composer, Shakespeare, top, p. 814, [that] he should come out from behind the curtain... My good girl servant Becky had...more to translate...."

Soon after "Hamlet", there was staged Professor Horowitz's "Yft tur, oder, Blest eyzl".

In the 1894-95 season, T. staged Lateiner's "Kenig un boyer", Horowitz's "Yonah hnbi", Jacob Gordin's "Di litvishe brider luria" (15 September 1894), in which he acted in the role of "Gedalya Luria", Gordin's "Mkhmd und di yuden in arabie, a historical opera in four acts, music by Reverend Kurantman" (18 October 1894), and Zeifert's "Di bat yehidh". About the same time, T. for the first time performed in New York as "Uriel Acosta". Bessie Thomashefsky portrayed an episode in association with that production:

"After acting... more to translate..."

According to B. Gorin, in the same season, there was also performed "King Richard III", composed [?] by B. Thomashefsky".

In the 1895-1896 season, T. acted at the Windsor Theatre (manager -- Prince and Sheinberg, who were out of the Thalia Theatre), and here he staged Horowitz's "Kuzri", Morris Rosenfeld's "Der letster khn gdol", and Jacob Terr's "Di zilberne hokhtsayt". In 1896-97 in the same theatre: Lateiner's "Yudele" [in Europe popularized under the name "Yidele der blinder"], Feinman's "Gibor hkheyl", the play "Di hugenotn (The Hugenots)", and Goldfaden's "The Sacrifice of Isaac". But in the middle of the season, T. went over with his wife to Edelstein in the Thalia Theatre, where they arranged the "Star Combination Productions" [T., Kessler and Adler].

About that uniting, T. wrote in his memoirs:

"The classical plays [which Kessler had performed in] had no success at the box office, and ... more to translate.... I was over in the Thalia Theatre, and we three, Adler, Kessler and I, were performing for the first time (start, pg. 815) in Gordin's 'Yidisher glkh'. You can in your imagination not produce(?), that in New York, even in the patriotic theatre world, did himself (?). Speculators had for tickets .....more to translate...."

About the production, Bessie Thomashefsky recalls: "Already all three stars were on the stage, and it became alive. Kessler soon took onto the stage mimicking Thomashefsky. I was frightened, and Thomashefsky had it, throwing a plate to ground and broke it; he already threw two plates sometimes. Kessler....more to translate..."

The production was similarly described by T. in his memoirs. The end of the Star Combination Productions was, that after several weeks of acting together, Kessler went away to Chicago, and T. with Adler were in the Windsor Theatre, where T. (with his wife) acted in 1897-1899, and here T. staged among other scenes, a play "Antignus der held".

According to B. Gorin in 1898 there was also staged  and performed T.'s "Der shkh, oder, Der zkhus fun shabat kodesh".

When Kessler returned and later again performed with the troupe, was again arranging the "Star Combination Productions" with T. and Adler. In the same season, T. also had the opportunity to act with the guest-starring Morris Morisson.

In the span of the time that he was there, there was staged Jacob Gordin's "Dovidl mshurr" (with T. in the title role), Leon Kobrin's play "Mina" (which had a great success), Gordin's "Devorahele miukhst" (in which T. had a specially name "Shimshon Ezynshtol"), and Zolotarevsky's play "Di shvartse khupah, oder, Der yidisher martirer (The Jewish Martyr)" [later popular under the name "Der yeshiva bukher, oder, Der yidisher hamlet"], in which T. portrayed "Abigdurl".

In the 1899-1900 season, T. was a partner of Edelstein in the People's Theatre, where he acted for three seasons together with Adler, also performing in a new repertoire, including  Gordin's "Der gaon" [27 November 1900], and  "Di yidishe getto".

Top, p. 816. After Adler's great success in Tolstoy's "(Di) Makht fun finsternish (The Power of Darkness)", T. staged two Lateiner plays" "Di 400 yor (The 400 Years)", and "Gabrialikl" [popular in Europe under the name "Kinke pinke", which later, just as "Dos pintele yid", became a synonym for shund in Yiddish theatre]. Here a strike occurred by the union actors; Bessie Thomashefsky, Adler and wife, Paulina Edelstein, and the non-union actors: Katzman, Jacob Frank, M. D. Vaksman, Morgenbesser and wife, Bella Gudinska, and Sabina Weinblatt, remained to act in the struggle against every union. However after several weeks T. went under, and the union actors, together with the stage workers, went back into the theatre.

In 1901 T. with his wife went to Europe and had the opportunity to stage in Berlin Lateiner's "Dovids fidele", for the benefit of the local Yiddish actors.

Returning to America, he acted again with Adler in the People's Theatre, and after Adler's performance of theatre, he remained as the sole partner with Edelstein and staged with great success Shomer's "Di goldene medina (The Golden Land)".

About that time, Bessie Thomashefsky recalls in her memoirs: "My husband arranged his dressing room [wardrobe room] as a true resident, but with quite the artistic manner. It was a true star's dressing room, indeed everything good: golden mirrors, expensive blue tapestries, lamps in all colors, expensive furniture, suitable, beautiful carpets [sofas] and other good things. It was a splendid dressing room".

At the same time T. staged Shomer's "Di yidishe imigrantn (The Jewish Immigrant)", which had a risky, material success. According to B. Gorin, in the same season, T.'s play, "Der shvartser yungermantshik" was staged.

[1902-1903 season] The coming season Bessie Thomashefsky calls "The Green Season": "This is the winter in which the People's Theatre had bathed in bare "greens": "Di grine moyd" (created from an English melodrama "Rachel Goldstein"), "Di grine kinder (The Green Children)", "Dos grine vaybl, oder, Der idisher yenki dudel (The Green Wife, or, The Jewish Yankee Doodle)", and "Der griner bukher (The Green Boy)", in short -- a green season with many green dollars in the tens of thousands".

On 7 November 1902, T. staged Leon Kobrin's drama "Der farloyrener gan-eydn (The Lost Paradise)", in which he acted in the role of "Bennie Leidman".

His success in this role had an impact on the selection of his future repertoire. About this, Leon Kobrin writes in his memoirs: "Thomashefsky's success with "Der farloyrener gan-eydn " led him furthermore, for several consecutive years, to stage better plays. Rarely a play of the other type ... It is a fact that at that time he often staged better plays before Adler or Kessler in his theatres... At that time several prominent American playwrights, such as the (top, pg. 817) Norman Hapgoods and Hochkins, and as John Corbin, who often wrote articles about the acting of Thomashefsky and his company".

About T.'s performance as "Bennie Leidman", Kobrin writes:

"This play....more to translate..."

On 4 December 1902, T. staged for the first time in Yiddish Goethe's "Faust" (translated by Leon Kobrin), acting in the role of "Mephisto", but the play was soon down from the placard. On 23 January 1903 he staged A. Mesko's play "Tkhis hmsim, oder, Tsvishn himel un erd". On 12 February 1903 -- Zolotaresky's translation "Der beit hamedrash unter der erd, oder, Di yidishe shtrasn-zingerin (The Jewish Street Singer)", [a dramatization, made Jewish, from Victor Hugo's "The Hunchback of Notre Dame"]; on 10 April 1903 -- N. Rakov's "Di shvueh baym sefer torah, oder, Der yidisher romeo un yulia", and had completed the season with the offering of Leon Kobrin's symbolic lay "God in der trost".

[1903-1904 season] On 23 October 1903, T. staged in M. Goldberg's Yiddish translation, Leon Mantel's adaptation of Richard Wagner's "Parsifal", which soon was taken off the stage.

[1904-1905 season] On 23 December 1904, under the supervision of Israel Zangwill, there was staged Kobrin's translation of Israel Zangwill's "Di kinder fun der geto (The Children of the Ghetto)", and later Leon Kobrin's play, "Di tsvey shvester (The Two Sisters)".

[1906-1907 season] On 8 February 1907 T. staged Sholem Aleichem's play "Idishe techter", which had little success, and soon thereafter, on 21 February 1907, his own "folkshtik in four acts, music by Friedsell" under the name "Di lemberger moyd, oder, Der nayer star", which also was kept for a short time on the placard.

[1907-1908 season] On 7 October 1907, he directed Osip Dymov's "Shma yisrael" (translation by Z. Kornblit), which was very strongly praised by the critics, and on 9 November 1907, in his own translation [?], Gerhard Hauptmann's drama "Di veber (The Weaver)". About the offering, Bessie Thomashefsky recalls in her memoirs: "This season we staged "Di veber", and created a great success. However, soon after "Di veber" -- again the same play ... more to translate..."

top, pg. 818. In the summertime, T. acted in his own summer theatre "Thomashefsky's Paradise Garden" in his summer villa.

In his future repertoire, T. included Libin's "Der troymer (The Dreamer)", and Abraham Goldfaden's "Ben-ami (Son of My People)" [25 December 1907].

"Ben-ami" was Goldfaden's last play. About T.'s offering, Bessie Thomashefsky recalls: "The father of the Yiddish stage Avraham Goldfaden felt that "Ben-ami" is his last work, and he had .... more to translate..."

Similarly, B. Gorin wrote about it.

Quite another related T. recalled in an article about the play: "I [T.] had the work staged trey after the demand as Goldfaden had written it. Goldfaden came to the last two rehearsals. He.... more to translate..."

[1908-1909 season] On 11 September 1908, T. staged Franz Molnar's "Der tayvl" (in the adaptation of Rudolf Marks), in which he acted in the title role. On 9 October 1908 there was an adaptation of Adolf Phillips's play "Der grosery man" (corner grocer). On 19 October 1908, an adaptation (?) of Semeon Yuskevich's drama "Der kenig (The King)" (acting in the title role). On 6 November 1908 Lateiner's "Der gonev, oder, Der yidisher birgermayster", and on 27 November 1908 Jacob Gordin's last play "Dementia amerikana, oder, Der vanzin nokh (top, p. 819) gelt" [T.'s concurrent-theatre Jacob P. Adler in the Windsor Theatre) staged at the same time Gordin's play "Der meshuges in amerika", which a week later was also advertised under the name "Dementia amerikana", but Jacob Gordin published a letter in the press, that his play "Dementia amerikana" had no right to be performed outside of Thomashefsky, and that the play which was performed in the Windsor Theatre is really Gordin's without the old play "Amerika", which for eight years returned to be performed without his name].

About the offering of "Dementia amerikana", B. Gorin writes: "This play had earlier been purchased by Kessler, but ... more to translate (2nd paragraph, p 819)....

T. wrote by himself about the offering of the last Gordin play" "With Jacob Gordin I have made it so, that he should not... more to translate....

In his "History of the Yiddish Theatre", B. Gorin...more to translate.....

p. 820.

["Dos pintele yid", which was advertised as being "from Boris Thomashefsky, subject by M. Zeifert, music by Perlmutter and Wohl", soon thereafter was brought to Europe as T.'s play, and there was performed season long by all the Yiddish troupes, which showed the entire dramatic and melodramatic repertoire. The play also later was published in Warsaw not controlled by the author of the adapter].

And B. Gorin writes further: "After, the 'nikht-da-gevezenem' success of 'Pintele yid' had simply started a khukha utlula over the better drama. In the warehouse of each theatre, they gained strength from every one who had just mentioned a better play. From the other directors there were now literally an outbreak of jealousy, and they searched for and stored shtiks that should be able to be compared to 'Pintele yid'."

In 1909 T. also tested his abilities in the literary publishing field: he founded a theatre weekly called "Di idishe bihne (The Yiddish Stage)", a weekly dedicated to all branches of the Yiddish drama and Yiddish music". The weekly's price two cents a volume, with eight pages of newspaper format, was published from 19 November 1909 until 29 April 1910 [one single complete example can be found with Dov-Ber Tirkel in Philadelphia].

In the weekly T. printed more articles and memoirs about Yiddish theatre, and also several transfers of his unfinished novel "Two Sisters, an original novel of Yiddish theatre life". Besides T.'s work, there were published there a lot of theatre news, articles about theatre, writings from others, correspondences from various cities and countries about Yiddish theatre, biographies and biographical notices about Yiddish actors, and reviews of offerings in Yiddish theatre.

p. 821

In December 1909 in the journal, there was also announced T.'s plan to found a theatre school. The student needed individual study wages of two hundred dollars a year in rates. In the printed form of the application, which the student had to fill out,.... more to translate....

On 17 January 1910 in the People's Theatre, there was staged T.'s "Di sheyne amerikanerin", according to the subject of Shakespeare's "The Taming of the Shrew", music by Perlmutter and Wohl; on 26 August 1910 -- "Di [Der] Nyu-yorker border (The New York Boarder)" [Boarders?] (a comedy-drama); on 13 October 1910 "Der poylisher yid (The Polish Jew)", music by Perlmutter and Wohl, which later was often performed on the Yiddish stage and in Europe; on 10 November 1910 -- "Der meshugah (The Lunatic)" (adapted from Herman Reibach); on 16 March 1911 -- "Jacob's Children, a drama, taken from Russian, adapted by Boris Thomashefsky", and on 13 April 1911 his operetta "Dos dorfs-meydl", subject by Rakow, music by Perlmutter and Wohl".

From time to time T. also staged plays by Kobrin, Libin and Zolotarevsky. Then he stage-directed and acted in the main roles in Kobrin's "Froyen-libe" (27 August 1909), Zolotarevsky's "Dos tsveyte vayb" [in T.'s adaptation], Kobrin's "Der shturm fun lebn" (16 September 1910), and Libin's "Gerekhtikeyt" (23 December 1910).

In the summer of 1911 T. traveled to Europe and acted in several productions in Yiddish theatre in London.

For the 1911-1912 season T. opened the People's Theatre with Avraham Shomer's play "Eykele mzik (The Reformed Convict)", which he had stage-directed. The main role was performed by Rudolph Schildkraut, who T. had engaged for the troupe, and with him in the title role there was also staged on 27 October 1911 Z. Libin's "Der gedanken-lezer"; on 6 October 1911 T. staged "Di neshome fun mayn folk, oder, Der ungarisher zinger, an operetta by Boris Thomashefsky, music by Perlmutter and Wohl". The operetta soon thereafter had a great success performing across all the Yiddish stages of the world, and without the knowledge of the author, it was published in Warsaw under the name "Di neshome fun mayn folk (Di neshome fun yisrael), an operetta in four acts by N. Rakow [!], publisher M. Goldfarb, Warsaw, 1926" [40 pp., 16].

On 30 November 1911 T. staged Libin's play "Blinde libe (Blind Love)", which he also in the later seasons very often played, and on 28 December 1911 -- Dr. Thedor Herzl's "Di naye geto (The New Ghetto)". In the middle of February 1912, S. left the troupe, and T. again became the main actor of the troupe. Here he, on 22 February 1912, staged Z. Libin's "Fremde kinder (Foreign Children)", and on 31 March 1912 "Di rayze nokh amerike by Boris Thomashefsky, subject by Dr. Schnitzer, music by Perlmutter and Wohl".

top, p. 822.

For the 1912-13 season, it began with a trust between Thomashefsky-Adler and T. In a short time, there was performed in Adler's People's Theatre his previously performed repertoire. By the time it was built (on Houston Street and Second Avenue) by Louie Minsky and Max B. Stoyer a new theatre under the name "Adler-Thomashefsky's National Theatre", with Adler and Thomashefsky as lessees and directors, and with Max R. Wilner and Joseph Edelstein as general managers. The theatre's opening ceremony on 24 September 1912 with a holiday production, in which there were staged a single act from Z. Libin's "Blinde libe" (with Boris Thomashefsky), Shakespeare's "Shylock" (with Jacob P. Adler), and Jacob Gordin's "Shloimke sharlatan" (with David Kessler). The next day, on 25 September 1912, T. staged his operetta "Di yidishe kroyn, subject by Rakow, music by Perlmutter and Wohl". The operetta was later performed for a long time almost on all the Yiddish stages. The productions would now be divided between Adler and T. : sometimes Adler used to stage his repertoire, and T. used to go out to perform in the province, and sometimes the reverse.

On 13 December 1912, T. staged Zolotarevsky's "Der eyntsiker zun", and then went out on a long tour across the province, where he also directed for the first time Leon Kobrin's comedy "Britsh of promis (Breach of Promise)", acting in the main role of "Bertshik", under which name ("Bertshik in amerike"), the comedy was also later performed. Returning to New York, he directed the same comedy on 21 February 1913 in the National Theatre. After a strike (in March 1913), T. directed on 22 April 1913, Zolotarevsky's musical drama "Di yidishe fon, oder, Mayn natsion, music by Perlmutter and Wohl", and went out in May 1913 to Europe, where he also took with him his newly written operetta "Dos farblondzhete shefele".

About the former condition of Yiddish theatre in America and its surrounds, which had led to T.'s travels, B. Gorin writes: "In New York....more to translate...."

top, pg. 823

The number of large theatres....more to translate...."

In May to June 1913 T. guest-starred (together with Celia Adler and Jacob Hochstein from America) in London's Yiddish Pavilion Theatre, where he staged for the first time Libin's plays "Gerekhtikeyt" and "Blinde libe", Kobrin's "Breach of Promise", under the name "Bertshik in Amerike", Goldfaden's "Ben-Ami", and several plays of the performed repertoire. Soon thereafter he went to guest-star (without Celia Adler) in Poland (Warsaw, Lodz, Galicia (Lemberg) and Russia (Odessa), where he also staged Kobrin's plays "Der farloyrener gan-eydn" and "Der blinder muzikant".

T.'s guest-role had evoked a great interest, because first, iz der min outlandish Yiddish guest-starring actors were quite rare, and secondly, T.'s name was very popular both as the founder and one of the prominent representatives of Yiddish theatre in America, as a successful operetta writer.

The guest-roles also...more to translate....

And Dr. Mukdoni writes in his memoirs about T.'s guest-roles: "I must say that Thomashefsky had made a very good impression on, p. 824, more to translate....

A relatively ground moral success was had my T. in Lodz, where he guest-starred for several weeks in Zandberg's Grand Theatre, but when he returned later to America, he published in the "Forward" (12, 19, 26 October 1913) a series of articles in which he made fun of Lodz's Yiddish theatre, which evoked a rebuttal attack in "Di varhayt" (16 December 1913). After visiting Berdichev, when T. for a short time had performed in Yekaterinoslav and in Odessa and returned to America, wherein he had -- through the mediation of Dr. Mukdoni -- brought the dramatist Osip Dymov.

For the 1913-1914 season, T again directed the National Theatre, where he had on 12 September 1913 staged H. M. Gastwirth's translation of L. Tolstoy's drama "Likht in der finsternish", under the name ""Tolstoy's lebn, oder, Likht in der finsternish", in which T acted in the role of "Nikolai" Ivanovich Saruntzev". Soon thereafter, T. brought from London the prima donna Fanya Zusmer, and from Poland the prima donna Nadya (Esther) Neroslavska, and the actor Lazar Freed, with whom he staged several already performed operettas, and on 15 October 1913 his own new operetta "Dos farblondzhete shefele", music by Perlmutter and Wohl. Here there came under the "Beilis epoch", when the Yiddish theatre staged a play from Beilis-process, and also (pg. 825, top) T. staged on 24 November 1913 Moshe Schorr's time piece "Mendel Beilis", performing in the title role.

On 12 December 1913, T. staged, together with the author, Osip Dymov's drama "Der eybiker vanderer (The Eternal Wanderer)" [Yiddish" Dr. A. Mukdoni], music by Sandler, acting in the role of "Mordechai Berman".

About the offering, B. Gorin writes: "Here...more to translate..."

The play remained in T.'s repertoire for several years.

On 12 February 1914, T. staged, together with the author [in the anonymous translation of B. Rivkin] Osip Dymov's play "Der gedungener khasun [the play later-to-become-famous "Yoshke muzikant (Yoshke the Musician), oder, Der zinger fun zayn troyer (The Singer of His Sorrows)"], in which he acted in the role of "Yoshke". The play had not enjoyed events, and on 20 March 1914 T. staged his own "Himel, erd un shvindl, a melodrama with music and dance in four acts, music by Perlmutter and Wohl", in which he acted in he role of "Barnato the Detective". Also the play did not stay long, and T. ended the season with performing repertoire, and after the season he went on tour across the American province.

In the 1914-15 season T. opened on 28 August 1914 at the National Theatre with Osip Dymov's play "Milkhome (War)", which wasn't maintained for a long time, and on 2 October 1914 T. staged his own operetta "Di poylishe khasene (The Polish Wedding), music by Perlmutter and Wohl". The offering was a success and remained for a certain time in repertoire, and initially in 1928 it was staged in Poland by the Kompaneyets troupe, and was thereafter without the knowledge of the author published in Warsaw [The Polish Wedding, a folks-shtik in three acts with a prologue and epilogue by Boris Thomashefsky, publisher L. Goldfarb, Warsaw 1928, p. 48, 16].

Sholem Asch arrived here in America, and T. staged his play "Unzer gloybn", in which he acted in the role of "Lazar". Also the play was not maintained for a long time, and on 24 December 1914, T. staged his own "symbolic play" under the name "A shtikele glik, oder, Der mazeldiker bukhur". Also the play soon went away from the stage.

On 8 January 1915 Max R. Wilner left the partnership, and T. remained the sole bel-habit of the National Theatre, which carried from now on the name "Thomashefsky's National Theatre". Here T. staged on 22 January 1915 Y. Zolotarevsky's time piece "Der yidisher martirer in Amerike (The Jewish Martyr in America)" [the Leo Frank opera], and on 5 February 1915 Avraham Shomer's comedy "Der griner milyoner (The Green Millionaire)", in which T. acted in the title role. The play remained for a long time in T.'s repertoire.

p. 826. In the same season, T. acted in the film of the operetta "Di tserisene neshomus".

On 3 September 1915 T. opened the 1915-16 season in his National Theatre with his four-act operetta "Dos turhle", (music by Perlmutter and Wohl), which remained on the stage for a long time, and on 15 October 1915 he staged Leon Kobrin's drama "Israel's hofenung, oder, Heilike libe", in which he acted in the main role of "Israel Poliakov". The play stayed for several weeks, and T. received much recognition from the critics for his acting. On 10 December 1915 he staged Moshe Richter's time-piece "Milkhome-kurbunus", which was simultaneously performed by Adler in another  New York theatre. On 4 February 1916 -- Moshe Schorr's drama "Toyt-shtrof", and on 9 March 1916 [in Newark], and on 10 March [in New York] Leon Kobrin's comedy "Di nekst-dorike", which remained for a certain time in T.'s repertoire. The season ended with the offering by N. Rakow's musical comedy "Hello New York", music by Perlmutter and Wohl.

0n 22 September 1916 T. opened the 1916-17 season in the National Theatre with his offering of Y. Zolotarevsky's "Dem tayvels makht (The Devil's Power)", and on 11 October 1916 he staged his own four-act operetta "Dos tsebrokhene fiedele" (music by Joseph Rumshinsky). For the first time on the Yiddish stage in America there was staged the operetta a ballet and the orchestra was settled with 24 musicians On 23 November 1916 T. staged with the newly arrived actor Samuel Goldenburg the play "Oyf zindike erd", and left others to guest-act in his theatre, and he went with the repertoire across the province. He left, but soon returned, and on 12 January 1917 he staged Osip Dymov's play "Der gayst fun shtot", in which he acted in the role of "David Steinman". The play, however, was soon taken down, and on 26 January 1917 T. staged the four-act time-piece "Yidishe milkhome-klus" by N. Rakow and Miller; on 2 March 1917 -- Z. Kornblit's comedy "Up town and Down town" (music by Rumshinsky), and on 7 April 1917 -- Dr. H. Zolotarov's "Far ire kinder" with Bertha Kalich.

For the 1917-1918 season, T. opened his National Theatre on 31 August 1917 with Z. Libin's play "Der eynitsiker edus", on 26 September 1917 he staged his own four-act operetta "Mazel Tov" (music by Joseph Rumshinsky); on 16 November 1917 -- his adaptation of B. Kovner's four-act comedy "Yente telebende" (music by Joseph Rumshinsky); on 21 December 1917 -- Leon Kobrin's play "Tsurik tsu zayn folk" in which he acted in the role "Artur Blek", and on 11 January 1918 -- his own operetta "Di khazante" [subject taken from "Di finf frankfurter"], (music by Joseph Rumshinsky), which remained for a long time in his repertoire. T. ended the season with the offering (22 March 1918) from his own comedy in three acts with a prologue "Mayn vayb iz in der kontry, hurry" (music by Joseph Rumshinsky).

top p. 827. For the 1918-19 season T. opened his National Theatre (30 August 1918) with his own three-act operetta "Di lustike yidelekh" (Music by Joseph Rumshinsky). On 3 October 1918 he staged in his adaptation Semyon Yushkevich's drama "Hunger", and on 11 October 1918 -- Lateiner's play "Dos shpil fun lebn, oder, Di makhutunim", which also stayed for only a short time; on 1 November 1918 he staged Anshel Schorr's time-piece "Nokh der milkhome"; on 27 November 1918 -- a handed-over (ibergeblibene) Gordin play "Vilde kozakn, oder, "Yidn un heyeremakn", in which he acted in the role of "Nikolai" (as the previous offering of the season, the play also nisht kayn arikhs-imim); on 13 December 1918 -- his adaptation of H. Kalmanowitz's comedy "Upstairs and Downstairs"; and on 11 February 1919 -- his own three-act operetta with a prologue "Dos alte lidele" (music -- Joseph Rumshinsky), which he staged until Pesach [April], when he began to tour across the province.

During the 1919-1920 season, T., (united with David Kessler), opened on 29 August 1919 in his National Theatre with H. Kalmanowitz's operetta "Di tsvey khazanim, a free adaptation of Boris Thomashefsky, music by Herman Wohl". (The second chief role in the operetta was played by T., as "Mordechai Zilbert", and Kessler as "Yerukhem"). On 8 October 1919, T. staged his operetta "Dos heylike lid, in three acts with a prologue, music by Herman Wohl". (T. as "Grodner the Actor", and Kessler as "Mira Michailovich"); on 26 October 1919 T. staged Zolotarevsky's "Kinder kumt aheym" (role of "Israel Landau"); on 16 January 1920 -- Osip Dymov's "Der yom hdin" (T. as "Jacob Bauman"). On 6 February 1920 -- Harry Thomashefsky's operetta "Parlor flor un beysment (Parlor Floor and Basement) (?), music by Milton and Harry Thomashefsky", and he ended the season (on 4 March 1920) with his adaptation of Gershom Bader's "Di goldene royze" (role of "Ertsbishof of Lemberg"), and with a large tour across the American province and Canada.

For the 1920-21 season, T. opened his National Theatre with a performance of L. Sniegoff (2 September 1920) in Strindberg's "Der foter (The Uncle)", and from Esther Sniegoff (3 September 1920) in Artsibashev's "Eyferzukht". Initially on 10 September 1920, T. performed as "Isaac Levkowitz" in I. Lillians's comedy "Mayn tatens vayb", and on 29 September 1920 he performed with Michal Michalesko, Zina Goldstein and Herman Serotsky in Kalman's operetta "Dos ungarishe meydl, oder, Di tshardash-firshtin"; on 12 October 1920 -- Aaron Lebedeff in Wolf Shumsky's musical comedy "Liovke molodetz". At the same time, there almost ended T.'s period as the first actor and regisseur in his theatre. He went out to guest-star for several months across the American province, and when he returned, he staged on 24 December 1920 "Dos muzikalishe shtetl, an operetta in three acts, a free adaptation (top, p. 828) by Boris Thomashefsky, music by Leo Low" (acting in the role of 'Daniel Vin"), then he again went on a tour across America., visiting California, where he acted and wrote about his travels in several articles in the "Forward", and he again performed in New York on 14 April 1921 in Shomer's "Der griner milyoner (The Green Millionaire)".

For the 1921-22 season, T., on 22 September 1921 in his National Theatre, he opened with Rudolph Schildkraut performing in "Der vanderer" by W. Samuel, translated by Henry Gastwirth. At the same time T. opened a theatre, "The Fourteenth Street Theatre", in which he staged and acted on 9 October 1921 in Avraham Shomer's "Hatikva", but after several productions he closed the theatre, and T. returned to his National Theatre, where he staged on 28 October 1921 Yitzhak Lash's "Yoshke khvat", with Lebedeff in the main role. On 25 December 1921 T. staged his operetta "Lebedik un fraylekh, oder, Vi got in odes", (music by Herman Wohl), in which he acted i the role of "Moshe Leib", then he guest-starred in Gabel's 116th Street Theatre, and first on 10 March 1922 he returned to his theatre with his new offering "Der goldener fodem, a folks-shtik in three acts by Boris Thomashefsky, twenty-four musical numbers, geklibn by A. Goldfaden, arranged by Herman Wohl" (a glorification of Avraham Goldfaden, in which T. performed in two roles: as "Avraham Goldfaden", and as "Boris Thomashefsky".

About his play "Der goldener fodem", Ab. Cahan writes:

"Boris Thomashefsky has taken the history of the people who had founded the Yiddish theatre and had created a play for it. The hero of the piece is also Avraham Goldfaden. ...Thomashefsky idealizes Goldfaden. He made him a human being who strove to the Yiddish theatre as to a great ideal; he made him a dreamer, who lies only in the sense of art, beauty, light and understanding. Golfaden's famous song "Shtey oyf mayn folk, ervakh fun dayn driml" created for Thomashefsky a special issue [leyt-motiv] . With this... .more to translate...."

Later T. toured the province and ended the season by guest-starring in the New York theatres.

For the 1922-1923 season, T. opened his National Theatre on 23 September 1922 with his "Toyznt un eyn nakht (A Thousand and One Nights), a fantastical operetta in three acts by Boris Thomashefsky, music by Herman Wohl". On 16 October 1922 there performed in a theatre Clara (top, p. 829) Young in B.'s "Di grine kuzine", and on 3 November 1922 T. staged to his benefit Yuri's play "Der kenig fun shmates" (Y. M. Osherowitz), and guest-starred over the province and in New York's theatres, until he staged on 9 February 1923 in the Lyric Theatre in his adaptation "Dos odeser yidl" by A. Kartozhinski. Around the end of the season T. became sick, and he had to cut short his acting, and his manager Louis Goldberg, together with Mike Saks took over Thomashefsky's National Theatre and called it "National Theatre". When T. visited, he guest-starred in Montreal, Toronto, Cleveland, Pittsburgh and other cities.

For the 1923-24 season, T. opened [for the first time] a Yiddish theatre on Broadway, the "Thomashefsky Broadway Yiddish Theatre" (44th Street, West of Broadway), and he staged with Schildkraut and Satz on 3 September 1923 Kartozhinski's "Di drey kleine biznes-leit" [the earlier produced play "Dos odeser yidl"] (music by Y. Cherniavsky); on 30 September 1923 he directed here in his combined play "Ikh un du" with music from Goldfaden, Rumshinsky, Friedsell, Wohl and Cherniavsky; on 7 December 1923 the German actor Adolf Phillip performed in T.'s theatre in Yiddish in his own comedy "Auction Pinochle" (T. acted with), and then T. brought, together with his son Harry and William Rolland, the "Vilna Troupe" from London, where they began to perform in the theatre on 29 January 1924, and in a span of time in which the troupe acted here, T. guest-starred in his repertoire in Brooklyn's Hopkinson Theatre.

The "Vilna Troupe" performed in Thomashefsky's for only a few weeks, and together moved to act in other theatres, closed T.'s theatre, and T. with his troupe guest-starred across the province and across the New York theatres.

In May 1924 T. traveled to South America, where he acted for several months.

[1924-1925 season] T. returned in October 1924 and soon performed in the Grand Theatre in a sketch "Der khazan mit der khazante". Then he again went on tour, guest-starring across the province, and in January 1925 he guest-starred together with Regina Zuckerberg in in New York's Grand Theatre, where he staged on 22 January 1925 a dramatization of his article about Argentina, under the name "Zindike neshomus fun buenos aires, an interesting scene about life in Argentina". After acting for several weeks, T. staged on 2 February 1925 in Loew's vaudeville theatre in English in a sketch "Der griner millyoner", again soon touring with Yiddish theatre across the American province, returning to New York and staging on 5 June 1925 in the Prospect Theatre his play "Ikh un du", and on 13 June 1925 he went to Europe where he guest-starred for a short time.

For a half-season 1925-26, T. was manager of a Yiddish theatre in Toronto (Canada), then again he toured across the American province, where he staged his dramatization of shtayger-protses, and on 23 April 1926 he again performed in New York (Amphion Theatre) in repertoire.

During the 1926-27 season, T. led a Yiddish troupe in Philadelphia, and since in Philadelphia, Sunday performances were forbidden, he acted on Sundays in New York's Brownsville's Lyric Theatre, where he staged on 12 September 1926 M. Nestor's operetta "Dos rbins hoyf", (music by Philip Laskowsky).

Several weeks later, T. went over with his Philadelphia troupe to New York's Lipzin Theatre, where he acted for only a short time.

In February 1927 he staged in Philadelphia's Garden Theatre the operetta "Bar Mitzvah" (music -- Philip Laskowsky, author, Boris Thomashefsky). The playwright Louis Reingold batsaykhnt damolt T.'n (see "Forward", N. Y., 25 March 1927) as plagiarized, supported thereof, which (also several songs and new jokes), was the same play that in 1924 was performed through Jacob Silbert at the Hopkinson Theatre under the name "A grus fun der heym" by L. Reingold, and that T. by himself had staged the play later with American guest-starring actors brought to Europe, where it was the sensation of the theatre season, and the same operetta, in a new adaptation with music by Joseph Rumshinsky, which on 25 November 1931 was staged through T. in New York's Second Avenue Theatre under the name "Der mames zundele", when T. guest-starred there.

On 24 September 1927 T. opened the [1927-28] season in Philadelphia's Metropolitan Opera with the operetta "Chad gadya" (music by P. Laskowsky). The theatre existed but for a short time and, in December 1927 T. performed in English vaudeville, later he toured as a guest-star in his old repertoire across the Yiddish theatres of America, and for the 1928-29 season, he founded a Yiddish troupe for California (Los Angeles and San Francisco).

In April 1929 he went to Europe, where he guest-starred (together with Ruth Reney) in England, France, Poland, Romania and Czechoslovakia, and for a certain time also with Willy Godik and Ola Lillith. In November 1930 he returned to America and staged on 26 November 1930 in the Public Theatre his operetta "Eretz Yisrael" (music -- Ab. Ellstein), in which he acted in the role of "Israel".

On 9 January 1931 he staged in the Lyric Theatre his play "Froyen-tayvel" with Bertha Rosenberg in the title role. The play was soon taken off the stage.

After acting for several months in the Public Theatre, and later across the American province, T. decided to found a Yiddish theatre in the English language. The first attempt (top, pg. 831) he made was with the offering of 10 September 1931 in New York's Selwyn Theatre his son Harris' adaptation of his operetta "Di khazante", under the name "The Singing Rabbi" (with music by Joseph Rumshinsky and Harry Lubin, lyrics by L. Wolfe Gilbert, staged by William E. Morris). The offering was very sharply criticized by the English and Yiddish press and after several performances closed the theatre. T began now acted in the English language in a sketch "The Green Millionaire" [adapted from Kobrin's play] across the vaudeville houses of R. K. O., then he returned to the Yiddish stage, guest-starring across several provincial cities and joined the Second Avenue Theatre, where he staged on 25 November 1931 a revival of his operetta "Bar Mitzvah", under the name "Der mames zundele" (music -- Joseph Rumshinsky), and then went over to the Lyric Theatre, where he acted for several months.

For the 1932-33 season, T. took over the Gaiety Theatre in Williamsburg (Brooklyn, New York), which he opened with his play "Di ende fun rusishn tsar (The End of the Russian Tsar)" (music -- J. Brody), which on 21 October 1932 was performed in Philadelphia's Casino Theatre under the name "Rasputin". In October 1932 he staged his operetta "Unzer rbinyu" (music by Joesph Brody), and when he brought as a gust-star from Europe the actor Isaac Samberg, he went alone to guest-star across the province. The Gaiety Theatre closed soon. T. then went to the McKinley Square Theatre to perform, in which the jurisdiction of the Yiddish Actors Union stood out, and thereby evoked an action of protest against him by the Actors' Union.


Besides the journal "Di idishe bihne", T. issued ["Di idishe bihne, a weekly dedicared as a granch of the Yiddish drama and Yiddish music". New York, 19 November 1909 -- 29 April 1910], and his book "Thomashefsky's Theatre Writings", New York, 1908 [108 pp., 16], he had also written very many articles about Yiddish theatre, and from time to time published memories about the first years of Yiddish theatre in America, and about the first actors. He also published portrayals of his trips throughout the world, in which despite all the mistakes there was in them existed many characteristic material of the history of Jewish life in America and other countries, especially about Yiddish theatre.

T. began his articles in "Di idishe bihne" from 10-31 December 1909, then he had his travels and acted in Europe (especially in Poland and Russia), writing in the "Forward" (21 September 1913 -- 18 January 1914), published a series of memoirs ("Forward" from 1 February until 19 April 1914), theatre feuilletons, articles about Schildkraut and Sam Shneyer, and travel impressions of Berlin ("Forward", 24 September -- 21 November 1915), travel impressions of Paris ("Forward", 5, 19 December 1915), about Jacob Spivakovski and theatre feuilletons ("Forward", 2, 9 January and 26 March 1916).

top, p. 832. On 2 April 1916 T. began to publish in the "Forward" his memoirs of the suppression of Yiddish theatre in America, which was published almost every Sunday until 16 July 1916, then from 26 November 1916 until 24 December 1916,  from 18 March 1917 until 29 April 1917, on 13 May and 3 June 1917, and from 7 October until 2 December 1917, when they were interrupted, and not finished.

In the "Forward" of 28 March 1918 he published an article about the Actors' Union, and in the same newspaper of 31 August -- 5 September 1918 a series of articles about deceased actors Morris Morrison. Later an article about David Kessler (23 May 1920), theatre feuilletons (26 February, 18 November -- 3 December 1921, 6 January -- 4 March 1922), and travel impressions of California (12-26 March 1921), Berl Bernstein (3 September 1922), Moscow Russia's Art Theatre (4 February 1923), memories and theatre feuilletons (25 February, 30 June, 3 August, 1, 7, 10 September 1923), Krantzfeld (11 August 1923), Golubok (18 August 1923), Spector (25 August 1923), Shenkman (10 November 1923), "Vilner Troupe" (12 December 1923).

During and after acting in South America T. wrote ("Forward", 12 July 1924 -- 1 January 1925), of Jewish life in Argentina and Brazil and the Yiddish theatres there, and in the collection book "Di geshikhte fun khazanus" (New York, 1924), he wrote about his memories as a choirboy in his youth.

In the "Forward" of 7 February 1925, he described his firth performance on the English stage. In the "Morning Journal" (7-26 April 1926), he published his memories of Jacob P. Adler, and in the "California Yiddish Voice" (4 January -- 7 May 1929) about the first Yiddish productions in America.

During his guest appearance in Europe, T. published memoirs about Adler ("Parizer haynt", 10, 11 February 1929), an article about the conditions of Yiddish Theatre in Poland and Romania ("Forward", 22 May 1930), and memoirs about Schildkraut ("Nayer lodzer folksblat", 19, 20 October 1930).

B. Gorin remarked about T."

"Thomashefsky was a young boy, almost even a youth, when he arrived in America, and he, more as every other actor, had ... more to translate..."

top, p. 833.

"In Thomashefsky... more to translate..."

"It would be false to say that Thomashefsky had ... more to translate..."

Finally Ab. Cahan writes: "In these years of "historic operas" and "biblical princes", he was exactly in his place....more to translate... in the Horowitz years."

Gershom Bader sees it differently: "Boris Thomashefsky is a good stage director, more than good. The stage lives under his hand, but the figure.... more to translate..."

top, p. 834

Leon Kobrin characterizes T. thus: "Two Thomashefsky's were united. As in life, two on the stage, and ... more to translate..."

So also, during ... more to translate....

Thus, Thomashefsky -- more to translate....

top, p. 835

However, this Thomashefsky, the Thomashefsky... more to translate..."

Zalmen Zylbercweig writes: "Boris Thomashefsky... more to translate..."

T.'s published plays in Yiddish were:

  1. Melody Publishers, Di idishe neshome, oder, Berl Kokhlefel, a musical drama in four acts by Jacob Terr, adapted by B. Thomashefsky, Warsaw, Tr'e [1909, 56 pp., 16]

  2. Dos pintele yud, an operetta in four acts by B. Thomashefsky, Warsaw, 1911 [60 pp, 16].

  3. Di neshome fun mayn folk, (Di neshome fun israel), an operetta in four acts by N. Rakow [really T.'s], publishing house M. Goldfarb, Warsaw, 1926 [40 pp, 16]

  4. Di poylisher khasene, a folks-shtik in three acts with a prologue and epilogue, by Boris Thomashefsky, Publisher L. Goldfarb, Warsaw, 1928 [48 pp, 16]

  5. Shloimke un rikel, a comic operetta in four acts by B. Thomashefsky [really J. Lateiner's "Zayn vabs fraynd"]

M. E.

  • Z. Reyzen -- "Lexicon of Yiddish Literature", Vol. I, p. 1155.

  • B. Gorin -- "History of Yiddish Theatre", Second volume.

  • B. Gorin -- "Kritik, "Der theater zhurnal", N. Y., 15, 1902.

  • A. K. [Cahan] -- A vikhtige, ernste drame in pipels theater, "Forward", N. Y., 9, 10 October 1907.

  • R. B. [Sh. Yanovsky] -- In theater, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 23 November 1907, Thomashevsky's "Theatre shriften", N. Y., 1908.

  • R. B. -- In theater "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 31 October 1908.

  • R. B. -- In theater, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 28 November; 5, 12 December 1908.

  • Boris Thomashefsky -- Adler un thomashevsky in amolige tsaytn, "Di idishe bihne", N. Y., 10, 17, 3 December 1909.

  • Z. Kornblith -- "Di shehne amerikanerin", "Di idishe bihne", N. Y., 21 January 1910.

  • Morris Rosenfeld -- Di narishe vokh in pipls theater, "Forward", N. Y, 20 October 1910.

  • R. B. -- In teater, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y, 5 February 1910.

  • Gershom Bader -- Gevezene, "Theater un moving piktures", N. Y., 6, 1913.

  • A. Frumkin -- Thomashefsky in london, "Forward", N. Y, 13 June 1913.

  • Dr. A. Mukdoni -- Der repertuar fin's yudishen teater in rusland far dem yohr tre"b, "Der pnks" (Red. Sh. Niger), Vilna, Tre"g, p. 265.

  • M -- m [Menachem] -- Teater-felieton, "Haynt", Warsaw, 30 June 1913.

  • S. Schlansky -- Ferteydigt thomashefskin, "Theater un moving piktures", N. Y., 9, 1913.

  • D. B. -- In theater, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 5 February 1913.

  • D. B. -- In theater, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 25 October 1913.

  • Boris Thomashefsky -- [Unter farsheydene keplekh], "Forward", N. Y., 21, 28 September; 5, 12, 19, 26 October; 9, 16, 23 November; 7, 21 December 1913.

  • Yitzhak Zandberg -- Kunst un dankbarkeyt, "Di varhayt", N. Y., 16 December 1913.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Osip dymov's naye piese in thomashefsky's theater, "Forward", N. Y., 30 December 1913.

  • Boris Thomashefsky -- [Unter farsheydene keplekh], "Forward", N. Y., 4, 11, 18 January; 1, 8, 15, 22 February; 15 March; 19 April 1914.

  • D. B. -- In theater, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 24 October 1914.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Sholem ash's naye piese in thomashefsky's teater, "Forward", N. Y., 3? November 1914.

  • Olgin -- Der "griner milyoner" in thomashefsky's theater, "Forward", N. Y., 21 November 1915.

  • Gustav Blum -- Boris Thomashefsky -- An Interview, "East and West", N. Y., 9, 1915.

  • Boris Thomashefsky -- [Unter farsheydene keplekh], "Forward", N. Y., 2, 9 January; 26 March; 2, 9, 16, 23, 30 April; 7, 14, 21, 29 May; 4, 18, 25 June; 2, 16 July; 26 November; 10, 17, 24 December 1916.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Di naye operete in thomashevsky's theater, "Forward", N. Y., 20 October 1916.

  • D. B. -- In theater, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y, 21 October 1916.

  • Boris Thomashefsky -- [Unter farshedene keplekh], "Forward", N. Y., 18, 25 March; 1, 8, 15, 22, 29 April; 13 May; 3 June; 7, 14, 21, 28 October; 11, 25 November, 2 December 1917.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Di naye idishe operete in thomashevsky's theater, "Forward", N. Y., 2 October 1917.

  • D. B. -- In theater, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 6 October 1917.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Vider a idishe operete in thomashefvsky's theater, "Forward", N. Y., 22 January 1918.

  • Israel the Yankee [Fridman] -- Di khazan'te, "Yidtagenblat", N. Y., 1 February 1918.

  • Joel Entin -- In un arum theater, "Di varhayt", N. Y., 24 February 1918.

  • Boris Thomashefsky -- Vi men nehmt oyf naye mitglider in der idisher aktyoren yunion, "Forward", N. Y., 29 March 1918.

  • Boris Thomashefsky -- [Vegn moris morison], "Forward", 31 August 1, 4, 5 September 1918.

  • D. B. -- In theater, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 7 September 1918.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Di naye operetke in thomashevsky's theater, "Forward", N. Y., 24 September 1918.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Yuskevitsh'es "hunger" in tomashevsky's theater, "Forward", N. Y., 5 October 1918.

  • D. B. -- In theater, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 7 December 1918.

  • D. B. -- In theater, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 21 December 1918.

  • Israel the Yankee -- Up-stairs un down-stairs, "Yidtagenblat", N. Y., 10 January 1919.

  • Hillel Rogoff -- Dos "alte liedele" in thomashefsky's neshanal theater, "Forward", N. Y., 29 February 1919.

  • Hillel Rogoff -- "Dos heylige lied" in thomashevsky's theater, "Forward", N. Y., 23 October 1919.

  • Boris Thomashefsky -- Thomashevsky dertsehlt vegen zayn bakantshaft mit david kessler'n, "Forward", N. Y., 23 May 1920.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Leow's operete in thoashevsky's theater, "Forward", N. Y., 4 January 1921.

  • W. Edlin -- Leo leow's operete in thomashevsky's teater, "Tog", N. Y., 5 January 1921.

  • Joel Entin -- "Dos muzikalishe shtetl" in tomashevsky's neshanal teater, "Di tsayt", N. Y., 5 January 1921.

  • Aaron H. Rosen -- Leow's "muzikalishe shtetel" in thomashevsky's teater, "Yidtagenblat", N. Y., 5 January 1921.

  • Votan -- Arum teater, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 8 January 1921.

  • Noach Prilutski -- "Yidish teater", Bialystok, 1921, Vol. II, pp. 38-46.

  • Morris Barkin -- Vegen dos "muzikalishe shtetel", "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 29 January 1921.

  • Boris Thomashefsky -- [Unter farsheidene keplekh], "Forward", N. Y., 26 February; 12, 20, 26 March; 18 November; 2, 9, 16, 23, 30 December 1921.

  • Der lebediker -- Vintshevsky in tomashevsky, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 24 June 1921.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Boris thomashefsky in shomer's a naye piese, "Forward", N. Y., 8 October 1921.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Di naye operetta in thomashefsky's theater, "Forward", N. Y., 12 January 1922.

  • Leon Blank -- Mogulesko tsukrigt zikh mit yakov gordin tsulieb a liedel in a piese, "Forward", N. Y., 22 January 1922.

  • Israel the Yankee -- Lebedig un frehlikh, "Yidtagblat", N. Y., 8 February 1922.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Thomashevsy's "goldener fodem", "Forward", N. Y., 22 March 1922.

  • Boris Thomashefsky -- [Unter farsheidene keplekh], "Forward", N. Y., 6, 13 January; 11 February; 4 March; 3 September 1922; 4, 25 February, 30 June, 3, 11, 18, 25 August; 1, 7, 10 September, 10 November, 12 December 1923.

  • G. Rivesman -- Vos far a idisher theater ken hoben erfolg oyf brodvey?, "Forward", N. Y., 15 June 1923.

  • Z. HIlelson -- Ver vet gehn in idishen theater oyf brodvey?, "Forward", N. Y., 6 July 1923.

  • Hillel Rogoff -- Boris thomashevsky oyf brodvey, "Forward", N. Y., 14 September 1923.






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Adapted from the original Yiddish text found within the  "Lexicon of the Yiddish Theatre" by Zalmen Zylbercweig, Volume 2, page 804.

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