Lives in the Yiddish Theatre


H. Leivick
(Leyvik Halpern)


Born in 1888 in  Igumen (Chervyen), Minsk Gubernia, White Russia. His father was a teacher for reading and writing Yiddish, his mother a baker. Until the age of nine, he learned in a cheder, then he went to away to the Berezin yeshiva, from there to the Minsk yeshiva, and her learned in the "Totersher kloyz", readying himself to become a rabbi.

At the age of sixteen he began to read small Hebrew books, and he became a heretic, and for reading Abraham Mapu's "Ahavat Zion", he was expelled from the yeshiva. Afterwards, L. entered into the Jewish Revolutionary Workers Movement, and for two years worked in the "Bund".

As a yeshiva student, he began to write Hebrew songs, and he had at first in the circle of the Workers Movement, become familiar with Yiddish literature. At that time he heard his first songs in Yiddish.

1906 -- he was condemned for four years of hard labor for belonging to the "Bund", and he was imprisoned in the Moscow jail "Butyrka", from where there came his first printed songs ""Tsayt-gayst", N. Y., 1907).

When the end of his term came, L. in 1912 was exiled to Siberia, where he had been brought for a year's time to a village of Irkutsk Gubernia. At the end of 1913 -- he escaped from where he had been sent, and he arrived in New York where he had for a year long after he was already famous as a poet, worked as a wallpaper hanger and house painter.

In New York, L. approached the group "Di yunge" and took part in their collection, while at the same time, however, publishing songs in the "Fraye arbayter shtime", "Forward", "Tog", "Tsayt" and "Tsukunft".

Debuting with his first songs in 1919, he however received greater attention at first from his dramatic poem "Der goylem". Since then he has also often taken to writing for the stage.

L.'s first performed play was "Shmates (Rags), a drama in four acts", staged on 6 December 1921 by Maurice Schwartz in New York's "Yiddish Art Theatre", with the following personnel:

Mordechai Maze
Rachel Leah
First daughter
Second daughter
Alter Levy
Abraham Malitz
A Worker
  Maurice Schwartz
Mark Schweid
Bina Abramowitz
Anna Appel
Bessie Mogulesko
Hyman Meisel
Tsvi Scooler
Jechiel Goldsmith
Julius Adler

Since then this play has remained in the permanent repertoire of New York's Yiddish Art Theatre. The production made such a strong impression that the "Forward" soon published the play (12-18 February 1922). In book form the play was published in 1928 in Vilna.

In May 1922 the play was staged through Yitzhak Deutsch in Vilna's "Fraye yidishe folks-bine".

In 1922 the play was staged in Warsaw under the direction of L. Kadison (with Avraham Morevski in the role of "Mordechai Maze") by the "Vilna Troupe".

On 23 September 1922 in New York's Yiddish Art Theatre, under the direction of Maurice Schwartz, there was staged L.'s play "Andersh (Different World/Others), a drama in three acts and five scenes", with the following personnel:

His mother "Alte"
Dr. Stein
Mr. Jacobs
Mrs. Jacobs, his wife
Luria's bride
  Maurice Schwartz
Bertha Gersten
Bina Abramowitz
Yitzhak Honigman
Gershon Rubin
Fannie Goldberg
Mischa German
Lucy German
Muni Weisenfreund

The play was no longer performed on any stage, and also was not published.

On 22 November 1923, in New York's Yiddish Art Theatre under the direction of Maurice Schwartz, there was staged L.'s "Betler (Beggars), a play in four acts by H. Leivick. Settings -- Sam Ostrovsky", with the following personnel:

Yonah Kasoke
A Voice from the Room
First woman
Second woman
First voice
Second voice
Jew with a Beard
False Blind Person
The Elder
Farzorgter Jew
  Wolf Goldfaden
Maurice Schwartz
Yudel Dubinsky
Mark Schweid
Julius Adler
Izidor Cashier
Bina Abramowitz
Berta Gerstin
E. Orzhevska
Leah Meltzer
Jacob Mestel
A. Winogradoff
Boaz Young
Leon Zeiderberg
Moshe Strassberg
Abraham Kubansky

On 5 May 1928, the play under the name "Di oreme malkhes (The Poor Kingdom)" was staged under the direction of Borisov by the "Dramatishe vinkl (Dramatic Corner)" in Vilna (in Maccabee Hall).

In 1929 the play was staged under the same name by the drama section of the Morris Winchevsky Cultural Center in Montevideo (Uruguay).

In May 1931 the play was staged by the dramatic circle in Cleveland (America).

On 27 February 1932 the play "Oreme malkhes, a play in four acts by H. Leivick, staged and direction by Jacob Rotbaum, settings by Andrzej Pronashko", staged in Warsaw's Yiddish Dramatic Theatre.

In 1932 the play was staged [settings by Michail Yo] in Riga by the local Yiddish Workers Theatre.

In 1927 the play was published in Europe: "H. Leivick. Oreme malkhes. A drama in four acts. Vilna 1927. Vilna publishing house of B. Kletskin" [141 pp., 16].

L.'s "Goylem" had its first production in Hebrew: "The Goylem, a drama in four acts..." [Hebrew translation by Benjamin Kaspi], staged on 25 December 1925 in Moscow by the "Habima", under he direction of B. I. Vershilov, settings by A. Gevinsky, music by M. Milner. The main roles that were performed: "Goylem" -- A. Meskin, "Maharal" -- doubles: B. Tchemerinsky and A. Prudkin, "Tadeush -- Y. Bertonoff, "Tanchum" -- doubles: Ben Chaim and Ben Ari.

The first non-professional production of L.'s "Goylem" in Yiddish came in April 1927 by the studio "Fraykunst" in Moscow (Soviet Union), under the direction of Vershilov ("Goylem -- Glasko, "Tanchum" -- Dobrovinski).

The second professional production of "Goylem"  came in the Polish language on 6 January 1928 in the Lublin Municipal Theatre (director: Yosef Grodnitski): "Goylem, a legend about a man of the people, in three acts with a prologue by H. Leivick, Polish text -- Andrzej Marek [Marek Arnstein], under the direction of Andrzej Marek". The main roles that were performed: "Goylem" -- St. Dombrovsky, "Maharal" -- B. Roslan, "Devorale" -- Skrzhidlovska. The Polish Lublin press "A. B. C.", "Ziemia Lubelska", "Express Lubelski", became excited about the play, the acting and the production. Then, however, there began a tremendous anti-Semitic ferment by the organ "Głos Lubelski (The Voice of Lublin)".

The actual large production of the play in the Polish language came initially on 31 May 1928 in Warsaw's Circus by A. Marek. here the projection of the architecture, settings and costumes drawn by Andrzej Pronatshka and Sh. Sirkus, music -- Jacob Hirshfeld, chorus by the Grand Synagogue on Tlomatska, and singing -- D. Eydenshtat. In he main roles: Maharal -- Karol Adventovitsh, "Goylem" -- Kazimierz Kiovski, "Tanchum -- Alfred Lodzhinski, "Tadeush" -- Jan Pavelovski.

The play was performed twenty-six times, often with a fully packed circus (2500 places).

The third Polish production was by a Marek on 27 June 1928 in Lodz's Municipal Theatre, where the play was performed a long time with great success. Later the play in Polish also was performed in the municipal theatres of Grodno and Bialystok.

Although Jacob Ben-Ami in 1921 had purchased the production rights of "Goylem", initially it came under the direction and staging of Marek Arnstein (Settings by Ch. Goldhuber) on 2 February 1929 in Krakow's Yiddish Theatre by the "Vilna Ensemble", with the following personnel:

Rabbi's wife
Rabbi Basev
The Old Beggar
The Young Beggar
A Monk
The Old Beggar
The Shemash
Der driter
  K. Kadish
B. Litvina
Z. Yaroslavski
A. Grodner
Y. Khash
L. Shriftzetser
L. Shriftzetser
Sh. Orliuk
K. Broyda
Sh. Orliuk

The troupe later performed the play across Poland, also including in Warsaw.

Around the same time, the play was (in five scenes, directed and staged by David Herman), staged in Stanislawow by the local "Music-Dram. Goldfaden Union". (Musical direction: Z. Goldfarb, costumes and settings -- M. Waldman).

On 22 August 1930, the play was, under the direction of David Herman, staged in Lodz's Municipal Theatre by the "Vilna Troupe" (costumes and settings: W. Weintraub, music -- H. Kon, choreography -- Leah Rotbaum). In the main roles: "Goylem" -- David Shapiro, "Maharal" -- Y. Weislitz, "Tanchum" -- Joseph Kamin, "Tadeush" -- Simcha Nathan, "Rabbi's wife" -- Devorah Gamarska, "Devorale" -- Esther Goldenberg.

On 20 September 1930, the season for the Riga Yiddish Meutim Theatre opened with L.'s "Goylem", staged by mark Arnstein (Settings: Hertsmark. Music--Illustrations -- Zunenstral).

On 7 May 1929 in Chicago's Goodman Theatre [in the translation of Y. Augenlicht], L.'s "Goylem" was staged in the English language. In the main roles: "Goylem" -- Michael Bero, "Tanchum -- Art. Smit, "Devorale" -- Jean Madison.

In April 1930 the play was staged in Yiddish through the dramatic section of the Yiddish gymnasium in Riga. The production arrived on the ten-year anniversary of the school and was directed by the student Tumarinson, who acted in the title role and also had drawn up the sketches for the settings.

On 5 November 1931 in New York through the Yiddish "Ensemble Art Theatre", under the direction of Egon Brecher, there came the first American Yiddish offering of L.'s "Der goylem", a dramatic legend in four acts and seven scenes, settings -- J. Foshko, music -- Joseph Achron [the play was specially adapted by the author].

The personnel consisted of:

The Goylem
The Sick Person
The Red Beggar
The Blind Beggar
The High Beggar
  Leonid Sniegov
Wolf Barzel
Lazar Fried
Jacob Mestel
Alexander Granach
Julia Adler
Elihu Tenenholtz
Yehuda Bleich
Michael Rosenberg
Itzhak Rotblum
Hershel Zohn

On 16 April 1932 in an "amateur" circle of the Chicago Jewish People's Institute, there was staged in the English translation of Dr. J. Augenlicht, L.'s "Goylem" in seven scenes, under the direction of Charles Freeman ["Goylem" -- Joseph Kasper, "Maharal" -- Charles Freeman].

In 1921 the play "Der goylem', for the first time, was published in new York, a dramatic poem in eight scenes in person, born of the legend of Praguer Maharal and his goylem" [publisher "America", 250 p., 16]. A special edition for Poland was issued by the publishing house "Kultur-lige", Warsaw, 1922, then the play several times was reprinted (including -- third reprint 1927) by the publishing house of B. Kletzkin, Vilna.

L.'s "Goylem" also was published in English in the translation of J. Augenlicht ("Poet Lore", 1928), and in 1933 it was in Boston the first two scenes were published in a new translation of the play F. White in the collection "Nine One-Act Plays".

About the play, there was also published a special four brochures: "Leo Finkelstein, between the lines of Leivick's "Goylem", Warsaw 1925" [37 p., 16], "B. Smoliar. As Leivick came to his goylem. Publishing house "Shvaygn (Silence[?])". [New York, 1925, 15 p., 32], "Aaron Bekerman, goylem as world redeemer. Publisher Sh. Goldfarb, Warsaw 1926" [32 p., 16]. and "H. Leivick's goylem by Dr. Sh. Simon. Issued by the publisher Yiddish Life, New York" [1927. 31 p., 16].

In the winter of 1925-26, in the collection "Shriftn", L.'s four-act drama "Bankrot (Bankrupt)" was published in New York, which in 1927 was published in a separate edition in Vilna. The play was not performed in the professional theatre.

On 14 January 1928, the play was performed by "amateurs", under the direction of B. Borisov in Vilna.

On 9 December 1926 in New York's Irving Place Theatre, under the direction of Jacob Ben-Ami [and Jacob Mestel], there was staged L.'s play "Shop", with the following personnel:

First Operator
Second Operator
Young Wife
  Jacob Ben-Ami
Max Rosenthal
Gershon Rubin
Rubin Hersh
Reuben Wendorf
S. Treibush
Anatole Winagradoff
Yechiel Goldshmidt
Leonid Sniegoff
Jacdob Mestel
Lidia Pototska
Sabina Rosenthal
Helen Zhelinska
Avigdor Pecker
Sh. Tabatshnikov
Bessie Budnik
Stella Adler
H' Malinovski
Slava Estrin

On 23 December 1927, the play was staged in Europe (Vilna, Folks Theatre) under the direction of Rudolf Zaslavsky, with him in the role of "Wolf".

On 16 August 1932, the play in the Hebrew translation by A. Shlionski, under the direction of Moshe Halevy, was staged through "Ahl" in Eretz Yisrael.

In 1927 the play "Shop" was published in New York's Journal "Der hamer", and in 1928 it was published in a separate edition in Vilna's Kletzkin publishing house.

On 6 June 1928 in Kaminski's theatre in Warsaw, there was staged L.'s "Hirsh Leckert" (director: Moshe Lipman, settings: Y. Broyner and Z. Shlivniak, music: Y. Shlossberg), with the following personnel:

Hirsh Lekert
His wife
His mother
His father
R' Zalye
Yoshke Boyger
Feivel Shloser
Rachmiel Bel-Eglah
Fon val
Rabbi (non-orthodox)
Owner of a teahouse
  Moshe Lipman
Natalie Lipman
Manya Keyzerovitsh
Meir Vinder
Herman Fisher
David Lederman
David Keyzerovitsh
Zishe Katz
Annie Litan
Dina Halpern
David Levy
Pesach Kerman
David Levy
Herman Fisher
Zishe Katz

In 1928 the play was staged by a drama circle at the Culture House in Odessa (Ukraine), in April 1929 -- through a collective, Frayhayt; in Moscow (Soviet Union); in May 1929 -- in a drama circle of the worker's club "Avangard" in Buenos Aires (Argentina), in October 1929 -- through a drama circle of the club "Driter internatsional" in Kharkov (Ukraine); in 1930 -- through a drama circle of the sports club "Tsukunft" in Sao Paolo (Brazil), and in May 1932, under the direction of Jacob Ben-Ami, staged in the Mecca Temple in New York (America), i.e. the last act of the play.

In November-December 1930 in New York's Yiddish Art Theatre, under the direction of Maurice Schwartz, there was staged L.'s play "Keytn (Chains)", a drama in three acts by H. Leivick. Settings -- Ch. Stillwell, with the following personnel:

Prison Doctor
First guard
Second guard
The smith
First workman
Second workman
  Maurice Schwartz
Lazar Freed
Morris Strassberg
Jacob Mestel
Philip Sherman
Boris Weiner
Mark Schweid
Michael Gibson
Joseph Greenberg
Isidore Cashier
Gershon Rubin
Hyman Wolkoff
Louis Weinberg
Ben Zion Katz
Samuel Lehrer
Rubin Frank
E. Kogor
Nathan Metalik
Hersh Zohn

On 7 May 1932, through the dramatic section of "Tsukunft" in Warsaw (Poland), there was staged in the Ateneum Theatre, L.'s play under the name "In tfise (In Prison), a dramatic play in two acts, according to H. Levick's "Keytn". On 5 August 1932, L.'s play, "Keytn", was staged under the direction of Kh. Buzgan in Lodz's Skala Theatre.

On 16 September 1931, the play was staged in Hebrew by the "Habima" in the Mugrabi Hall in Tel Aviv (Eretz Yisrael): "Chains, a drama in two acts, from H. Leivick, Hebrew translation Ts. Oyoslbsky(?), hhtsgh -- B. Ts'mrinski, htseyr -- M. Shmidt".

In 1930 the play was published in New York's weekly "Di vokh" (23-25), and in 1931 in Vilna in a separate edition: "H. Leivick. Keytn. Drama in three acts, Vilna publishing house of B. Kletzkin [101 pp., 16].

1925 -- L. went on a trip across Europe and everywhere, both in the Jewish colonies of Paris, Berlin, as well as in all the larger cities of Poland and across the entire Soviet Union, being taken with the greatest honors, proclaiming in the press an entire literature across his life and creations. At the beginning of 1926 L. returned to New York, where he was taken in as a permanent member of the Yiddish communist newspaper "Frayhayt", and he remained there until the blood events in Eretz Yisrael (1929), where he broke off his work in the newspaper.

1932 -- L. became sick, and because of this, had to go to the Spivak Sanatorium in Denver (Colorado) for several months. here L. completed his new dramatic poem "Der goylem khlum't", from which he, in May 1931, published a fragment of it in N. Y.'s "Tsukunft", and he also wrote his new plays "Der poet vert blind (The Poet Becomes Blind)" and "The Sacrifice of Isaac".

L.'s printed plays in Yiddish:

[1]   H. Leivick, Der goylem, a dramatic poem in eight scenes in person. Built on the legend of Prager Maharal and his goylem. Publishing house "America", New York, 1921 [250 p., 16].

[1a]  H. Leivick, Der goylem, a dramatic poem in eight scenes, publisher "Kultur-lige", Warsaw, 1922 [234 p., 16].

[1b]  Third reprint, Vilna 1927. Vilna publishing house of B. Kletzkin [254 p., 16].

[2]    Shmates (drama in four acts), by H. Leivick. ["Forward", N. Y., 12-18 February 1922].

[2a]   Drama in four acts, Vilna 1928. Vilna publishing house of B. Kletzkin [128 p., 16].

[3]    H. Leivick, Bankrot, drama in four acts, "Shritfn", N. Y., Winter 1925-26].

[3a]   Drama in three acts and four scenes, 1927. Vilna publishing house of B. Kletzkin [170 p., 16].

[4]    H. Leivick, Shop, drama in four acts ["Der hamer", N. Y., 1-2, 1927].

[4a]   Vilna 1928. Vilna publishing house of B. Kletzkin [138 p., 16].

[5]    H. Leivick, Oreme malkhes, drama in four acts, Vilna -- 1927. Vilna publishing house of B. Kletzkin [144 p., 16].

[6]    H. Leivick, Hirsh Lekert, dramatic poem in six scenes ["Der hamer", N. Y., November-December 1927].

[6a]   Vilna 1931. Vilna publishing house of B. Kletzkin [113 p., 16].

[7]    H. Leivick, Keytn, drama in three acts, "Di vokh", N. Y., 23-26, 1930.

[7a]   Vilna publishing house of B. Kletzkin [101 p., 16].

[8]    H. Leivick, Der goylem khlum't, fragments of a dramatic poem ["Tsukunft", N. Y., May 1932].

L.'s printed plays in English:

[1]    "The Golem", a dramatic Poem in eight scenes by H. Levick -- Authorized Translation from the Yiddish by J. C. Augenlicht, "Poet Lore", Volume XXXVIII, Boston, 1928, pp. 159-289.

[1a]   The Golem by H. Leivick, translated by Bessie T. White. [only the first two scenes in the book:] "Nine One-Act Plays From the Yiddish". Boston. John W. Luce and Company [1933].


L.'s printed plays in Polish:

H. Levick, "Golem". [fragments anonymously translated]. "Nowy Dziennik", Krakow, Lipiec-Grudzien 1924.

Sh. E. from  Mark Arnstein and Jacob Mestel.

  • Z. Reyzen -- "Lexicon of Yiddish Literature", Vol. II, pp. 196-202.

  • B. Gorin -- "History of Yiddish Theatre", Vol. II, p. 280.

  • Hillel Rogoff -- "Der goylem", "Forward", N. Y., 5 June 1921.

  • Ab. Cahan -- A shtik leben oyf der idisher bine, "Forward", N. Y., 14 December 1921.

  • B. Gorin -- "Shmates", Morning Journal, N. Y., 14 December 1921.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Brief tsum "forverts" vegen a piese, "Forward", N. Y., 5 January 1922.

  • Aksel [A. Epstein] -- "Shmates", Fraye arbayter shtime, N. Y., 24 February, 3 March 1922.

  • M. Baranov -- In idishen theater, "Forward", N. Y., 20 March 1922.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Vegen dem idishen teater bkll, "Forward", N. Y., 25 March 1922.

  • Moskof [M. A. Fuchs] -- Naye theater-skandalen, "Forward", N. Y., 17 May 1922.

  • M. B-t [Bleyshtift] -- Digastrolen fun der vilner trupe, "Lodz Togenblat", June 1922.

  • Pinchas Katz -- Sholem ash's "motke ganev" un leivik's "shmates" in varshaver yidishn teater, "Forward", N. Y., 1 July 1922.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Leivik's tsveyte piese, "Forward", N. Y, 27 Sept. 1922.

  • S. Dingol -- H. leivik's naye piese "andersh" in idishen kunst teater, "Tog", N. Y., 29 September 1922.

  • Shmuel Niger -- Dos lid "andersh", "Der tog", N. Y., 1 October 1922.

  • Bel-mkhshbus -- H. leiviks "goylem", "Idishe tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 4 November 1923.

  • Dr. Alexander Mukdoni -- A velt on a tropen vaser, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 23 November 1923.

  • Liliput -- "A shtral fun likht oyfn opgrunt fun lebn", "Frayhayt", N. Y., 24 November 1923.

  • Vladimir Grosman -- "Betler", "Der tog", N. Y., 26 November 1923.

  • Dr. A. Mukdoni -- A shpil unter a shleyer (h. leivik's "betler"), "Morning Journal", N. Y., 30 November 1923.

  • Ab. Cahan -- A naye piese fun leivik in shvarts's theater, "Forward", N. Y., 4 December 1923.

  • Sh. Niger -- "Betler" un "di orime malkhes", "Tog", N. Y., 9 December 1923.

  • Alter Epstein (Aksel) -- Betler, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 14 December 1923.

  • M. E. -- "Betler" (di orime malkes), "Tealit", N. Y., 3 January 1924.

  • Leo Finkelstein -- "Tsvishn di shurus fun leiviks "goylem", Warsaw, 1925, 37 pp.

  • B. Smoliar -- Vi leivik iz gekumen tsu zayn "goylem", publishing house "Tsvygn", [New York, 1925, 15 pp., 32].

  • Aaron Bekerman -- "Goylem als velt-derleyzer", publishing house", Sh. Goldfarb, Warsaw, 1926, 32 pp.

  • B. [Buchwald] -- A drame fun yedidah, un shrek, "Frayhayt", N. Y., 26 March 1926.

  • M. Ring -- Gvald s'iz mayns un gvald, s'iz nit mayns, "Frayhayt", N. Y., 9 April 1926.

  • Y. F. -- In moskver hebreishn teater "habima", "Literarishe bleter", Warsaw, 90, 1926.

  • B. Tchemerinsky -- H. leivik in "habima", "Literarishe bleter", Warsaw, 98, 1926.

  • Dr. M. Weichert -- "Hagoylem" in "habima", "Literarishe bleter", Warsaw, 101, 1926.

  • Ab. Cahan -- A naye piese in irving teater, "Forward", N. Y., 7 December 1926.

  • N. Buchwald -- Leivik's sotsiale drame in an umgevaynlekher oyffirung, "Frayhayt", N. Y., 8 December 1926.

  • A. Glantz -- "Shop", "Der tog", N. Y., 10 December 1926.

  • Dr. A. Mukdoni -- H. Leivik's naye drame, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 10 December 1926.

  • Dr. Y. Kritikus [Jaco Kirschenbaum] -- In der velt fun teater, "Der amerikaner", N. Y., 17 December 1926.

  • B. Botwinik -- Leivik's "shop", in irving pleys teater, "Der veker", N. Y., 25 December 1926.

  • M. Y. A. -- In teater, "Der hamer", January 1927.

  • Dr. Jacob Shatzky -- "Shop" fun h. leivik, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., N' 7, 1927.

  • Aba Lilian -- Der shop fun ale sheper -- an ongeshtelte kli fun lebedige menshen-shreyflekh, "Idishe velt", Philadelphia, 20 April 1927.

  • Kit -- Shmates fun h, leivik, "Frimorgn", Riga, 14 January 1927.

  • A--ve [Vaviorke] -- Der "goylem" in der studye, "Fraykunst", "Emes", Moscow, 20 April 1927.

  • "H. Leiviks goylem" fun dr. sh. simon, aroysgegeben fun farlag idish leben, new-york [1927, 13 pp., 16].

  • Dr. A. Mukdoni -- H. leiviks "goylem" bay habima, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 4 February 1927.

  • Hillel Rogoff --Di "habima" git a prakhtfule oyffirung fun dem "goylem", "Forward", N. Y., 4 February 1927.

  • A. Glants -- Leiviks "goylem" by der habima, "Tog", N. Y., 4 February 1927.

  • Leon Weisenfeld -- Leiviks "goylem" vi di "habima" shpielt ihr, "Yudisher rekord", 5 June 1927.

  • David Manievitsh -- H. leiviks "hirsh lekert", "Frayhayt", N. Y., 23 October 1927.

  • Z. R. [Reyzen] -- Leiviks shop in yidishn folks-teater, "Vilner tog", 26 December 1927.

  • A. Y. Grodzenski -- "Shop" in folksteater, "Ovnt kurier", Vilna, 26 December 1927.

  • E. Bz. -- Habima, "Karlsruher Mittagsblatt", 21 October 1927.

  • Y. Nisenboym -- Leiviks goylem vert oyfgefirt in shtodtishen poylishen teater in lublin. A shmues mit'n instsenizator un rezhiser, dem bekanten yudish-poylishen dramaturg mark arnsthteyn, "Lublin togblat", 30 Decembber 1927.

  • Y. Nisenboym -- Erv der oyffirung fun "goylem" in shtodtishen poylishen teater, "Lublin tognblat", 4 January 1928.

  • Zct -- Przed premiera w Teatrze Miejskim "Golem", "Ziemia Lubelska", 4/1 1928.

  • X -- Dem h'kanarovski hot zikh gemakht a "shtikl melakhes", "Glos lubelski" ongehoyben a hetse gegen "goylem". "Lublin tognblat", 4 January 1928.

  • X -- Arum der oyffirung fun goylem oyf der poylisher bine, vider a hets artikel fun "glos", "Lublin tognblat", 5 January 1928.

  • Y. Nisenboym -- "Der goylem". Iberzetst, instsenizirt un rezhshisirt andrzej marek. Oyfgefirst in shtotishen teater. "Lublin togblat", 8 January 1928.

  • W. G. -- Z teatru lubelskiego, Golem. "Express Lubelski", 8/1 1928.

  • Sh. Y. Stupnitski -- Dos problem fun "goylem", "Lublin togblat", 13 January 1928.

  • Y. Nisenboym -- Nokh der premiere fun "goylem", "Lublin togblat", 13 January 1928.

  • B. Sh. [Bela Shapiro] -- Der "goylem" in shtedtishen teater, "Lublin shtime", 1, 1928.

  • [--] -- Di oyffirung fun h. leiviks goylem in lublilner poylishn shtot teater, "Literarishe bleter", Warsaw, 3, 1928.

  • Lublinianin -- "Golem" na scenie polskiej w Lublinie, "Nasz Przeglad", Warszawa, 25/1, 1928.

  • HB -- Habima im Schauspielhaus, "Munchener Zeit.", 1 February 1928.

  • Ben Tsion Yedida -- Hagoylem, "Der hyum", Jerusalem, 3 April 1928.

  • Alter Katsizne -- Der "goylem" un kiepura, "Ilustrirte vokh", Warsaw, N' 2, 1928.

  • Yehoshua Perle -- Kidush hashem un di kritiks, "Ilustrirte vokh", Warsaw, N/ 2, 1928.

  • K. -- Nowoczesne widowisko teatralne. Golem w cyrku warszawskim. Rozmowa z Andrzejem Markiem, "Epoka", Warszawa, 20/5 1928.

  • B. R. -- Golem w cyrku, "Nasz Przeglad", Warszawa, 23 May 1928.

  • Jacob Botoshansky -- Der amter emes vegn h. leiviks shmates un a. morevskis debut, "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 10 April 1928.

  • [--] -- A yudisher metsenat helft oyfiren dem "goylem" oyf poylish, "Unzer ekspres", Warsaw, 29 May 1928.

  • Boy-Zelinski -- "Golem", misterjum dramaticzne, "Kurjer Poranny", Warszawa, 30/5 1928.

  • Saul Wagman -- "Golem" w cyrku, "Nasz Przeglad", Warszawa, 31 May 1928.

  • A. Chor -- Golem, misterjum dramatyczne wedlug poematu H. Leiwika, opracowal Andrzej Marek, "Kurjer Polski", Warszawa, 31 May 1928.

  • Sh. Y. Stupnitski -- "Faust" un "goylem", "Moment", Warsaw, 1, June 1928.

  • Y. M. Neyman -- "Der goylem" fo folksu, "Haynt", Warsaw, 1 June 1928.

  • Elchanan Zeitlin -- "Der goylem", "Unzer Ekspres", Warsaw, 3, 1 June 1928.

  • Sh. L. Shneiderman -- Vegn der poylisher oyffirung fun leivkis "goylem", "Arbayter tsaytung", Warsaw, 1 June 1928.

  • Tatyana F. -- Leivik's "goylem" oyf poylish, "Nayer folksblat", Lodz, 1 June 1928.

  • W. Zawistowski -- "Golem", w cyrku warszawskim, "Kurjer Poranny", Warszawa, 2/6 1928.

  • K. [Karlinski] -- "Golem", dramatishe misterye. Poylishe farafraze fun andrzej marek. Oyfgefirst in tsirk. "Moment", Warsaw, 3 June 1928.

  • M. Erlich-Dubnow -- Di oyffirung fun "goylem" in tsirk, "Naye folkstsayt", Warsaw, 5 June 1928.

  • Moshe Poliakevitsh -- Der "goylem" fun h. leivik oyf der varshever tsirk-arene, "Der morgn", Lemberg, 5 June 1928.

  • Y. Wrshavik? -- "Hagoylem el habima hpulnit, "Hatsfirah", Warsaw, 5 June 1928.

  • Jozef Witlin -- Golem w cyrku warszawskim, "Robotnik", Warszawa, 5/6 1928.

  • Mieczyslaw Walis -- Dekoracje do Golema, "Robotnik", Warszawa, 5/6 1928.

  • M. Cent. -- Muzyka zydowska, spiewe i muzyka w "Golemie", "Nasz Przeglad", Warszawa, 7/6 1928.

  • Elchanan Zeitlin -- Di moshiakh-idee un di goylem-legende, "Unzer ekspres", Warsaw, 9 June 1928.

  • [--] -- Prasa polska o inscenizacji "Golema", "Nasz Przeglad", Warszawa, 10/6 1928.

  • Sh. L. Shneiderman -- Bay karol adventovitsh, "Literarishe bleter", Warsaw, 23, 1928.

  • N. M. [Meisel] -- H. leiviks "hersh lekert" in kaminskis teater, "Literarishe bleter", Warsaw, 24, 1928.

  • F. M. -- Hirsh lekert oyf der bine, "Yungt-veker", Warsaw, 2, 1928.

  • Lmd-kuf [Lazar Kahan] -- H. leiviks "hirsh lekert", "Unzer ekspres", Warsaw, 10 June 1928.

  • A teatral [B. Michalevitsh] -- Amol iz geven a shuster., "Naye folkstsayt", Warsaw, 10 June 1928.

  • {--] -- Der Golem (Warschauer Brief), "Freei Presse", Lodz, 14/6 1928.

  • --- ---- H. leivik: hirsh lekert. Teater kaminski, "Der moment", Warsaw, 15 June 1928.

  • Zr. [Zrkbl] -- Leiviks "hirsh lekert" in teater kaminski, "Arbayter tsaytung", Warsaw, N' 25. 1928.

  • Y. M. Neyman -- "Hirsh lekert" fun h. leivik oyfgefirst in kaminskis teater, "Haynt", Warsaw, 15 June 1928.

  • Minsky's Theatre, "Haynt", Warsaw, 15 June 1928.

  • [Lichten] Stein -- "Der goylem" fun h. .eivik, "Lodzer veker", N' 29, 30, 1928.

  • F. Tatyana -- Erv der groyser teater-sensatsye in lodz, "Nayer folksblat", Lodz, 22 June 1928.

  • Kr. [M. Krenitski] -- In varsha iz geven an'eksperiment, di emes'e oyffirung fun "goylem" vet forkumen in lodz, "Lodz Tagenblat", 26 June 1928.

  • [--] -- Beim Golem-Gestalter, "Fraye Prese", Lodz, 26/6 1928.

  • AR -- Legenda o Golemie, "Republika", Lodz, 26/6 1928.

  • A. P. -- "Golem", die Erstauffuhrung der "Legende vom Menschen aus Lehm" im Stadttheater, "Neue Lodzer Zeitung", 29/6 1928.

  • Tatyana Don -- Leiviks "goylem" in lodzer shtotishen poylisher teater, "Nayer folksblat", Lodz, 29 June 1928.

  • M. H. -- Leiviks goylem in shtotishen teater, "Lodzer arbayter", N' 27, 1928.

  • Dr. V. Falak -- Der "goylem" oyfgefirst in lodzer shtotishen teater, "Lodz Tagenblat", 1 July 1928.

  • Ben-Zev [Yosef Levy] -- Teater-forshtelungen als mitel tsu poylish-idisher farshtendigung, "Haynt", Warsaw, 8 July 1928.

  • Yoel Mastboym -- Yidishe verk oyf der poylisher bine, "Lodz Tagenblat", 10 July 1928.

  • Zygmunt Tonecki -- Le theatre an cirque, "Reveu Internationale du Theatre", July-August, 1928.

  • Chanan [Pesach Kaplan] -- Leiviks "hirsh lekert" geshpilt durkhn varshever artistn-vinkl, "Naye lebn", Bialystok, 26 August 1928.

  • Y. N-m [Nisenboym] -- Hirsh lekert fun h. lekert fun h. leivik, "Lublin togblat", 18 September 1928.

  • Y. Linkovsky -- Shmates fun h. leivik, "Royter shtern", Buenos Aires, N' 19, 1928.

  • Aaron Zeitlin -- Vegn tsvey drames, "Di yidishe velt", Warsaw, V, 1928.

  • Michael Weichert -- H. leiviks "shmates", "Di yidishe velt", Warsaw, 1928.

  • Ch. Garmize -- "Hirsh lekert" (fun h. leivik) in dr shtelung fun dramkrayz bam kultur-hoyz, "Odeser arbayter", N' 11, 1928.

  • Sh. Liev -- Kinstlerisher tikun fun a revolutsionern held, "Der hamer", N. Y., August 1928.

  • B. Sh. -- "Hirsh lekert" fun h. leivik, oyfgefirst durkhn "varsever artistn-vinkl", "Lublin shtime", N' 37, 1928.

  • G. Was -- "Golem" -- legenda w. 3-ch aktach, "Glos Polski", Lodz, 29/6 1928.

  • M. K. [Kanfer] -- na powitanie Marka Arnszteina, na margin. odczytu o Golemie, "Nowy Dziennik", Krakow, 28/1 1929.

  • [--] -- Golem w krakowskim teatrze zydowskim, "Nowy Dziennik", Karkow, 31/1 1929.

  • Andrzej Marek -- Narodziny Golema w swietle legendy, "Nowy Dziennik", Krakow, 1, 2/2 1929.

  • M. Kanfer -- Teater zydowski w Krakowie, "Nowy Dziennik", Krakow, 7/2 1929.

  • RZ -- [review] -- "Ilustrowany Kuryer Codzienny", Krakow, 12/2 1929.

  • Moshe Blecher -- Mark arnshteyns oyffirung fun leiviks "goylem" oyf yidish, "Teater-tsaytung", Warsaw, N' 4-5, 1929.

  • A teatral -- Der goylem fun leivik, oysgefirt durkhn vilner ansambl, "Czenstochow tsaytung", N' 12, 1929.

  • V. -- Der "goylem" fun h. leivik, "Di tsayt", Czestochowa, N' 10, 1929.

  • A. Vieviorka -- "Hirsh lekert", "Emes", Moscow, 19 April 1929.

  • Ts. H. Rubinstein -- Leiviks "goylem" oyf english in shikago, "Der tog", N. Y., 15 May 1929.

  • Y. Nisenboym --- "Der goylem", "Lublin togblat", 20, 21, 22 May 1929.

  • Jacob Botoshansky -- Di mase, "Di Prese", Buenos Aires, 28 May 1929.

  • Elchanan Zeitlin -- Leiviks "goylem" in der oyffirung fun "vilner ansambl", "Unzer ekspres", Warsaw, 2 July 1929.

  • A. Foygel [ Y. M. Neyman] -- "Der goylem" oysgefirst in kaminskis teater, "Haynt", Warsaw, 3 July 1929.

  • Dr. Y. Halpern -- Leiviks "goylem" in kaminskis teater, "Naye folkstsaytung", Warsaw, 3 July 1929.

  • B. Karlinius -- "Ikh dank -- a simn az ikh leb", "Der moment", Warsaw, 5 July 1929.

  • Sh. Dreiter -- Der "goylem" fun h. leivik in folks-teater, "Vilner tog", 14 July 1929.

  • A. Y. Grodzenski -- Leiviks "goylem" in folks-teater, "Ovnt-kuryer", Vilna, 19 July 1929.

  • M. -- "Hirsh lekert" (fun h. leivik). "Yunge gvardye", Kharkov, N' 43, 1929.

  • H. Baru -- "HIrsh lekert" (fun h. leivik). Drama circle "Third International", "Prese", Buenos Aires", 21 November 1929.

  • Bello -- Di oreme "melakhes" (oysgefirt fun der dramsektsye gam kultur tsenter moris vinsshevsky), "Unzer lebn", Montevideo, N' 177, 1929.

  • D. Kaplan -- Leivik's naye drame "keyten" in moris shvarts's kunst-teater, "Forward", N. Y. ,27 February 1930.

  • William Edlin -- Tsevy naye piesen -- a tragedye un a komedye, "Der tog", N. Y., 28 February 1930.

  • B. Y. Goldstein -- Oyf der teater evenyu, N. Y. 7 March 1930.

  • Menachem -- Leivik's "keytn", "Di vokh", N. Y., 22 1930.

  • Meyer -- Hirsh lekert (fun h. leivik), oyfgefirst durkh dem dramkrayz bam sport-klub "tsukunft" in san paolo, "Onhoyb", Rio, N' 20, 1930.

  • [--] -- Unzer yom-tov in meka templ, "Di vokh", N. Y., 21, 1930.

  • Chanan -- Leiviks "goylem" in palas, "Naye lebn", Bialystok, 14 April 1928.

  • Abidoni(?) -- Der "goylem". Oyffirung fun der dramatisher sektsye bay der yidisher gimnazie in riga, "Folksblat", Kovno, 3 May 1930.

  • H. Shk. -- "Goylem", -- fun leivik, "Idishe shtime", Kovno, 29 July 1930.

  • Elchanan Zeitlin -- "Der goylem", "Unzer ekspres", Warsaw, 26 August 1930.

  • Y. Sh-n [Shulman] -- Leiviks "goylem" in der oyffirung fun dovid herman bay di "vilner", "Nayer folksblat", Lodz, 27 August 1930.

  • E. Nordman -- Der "goylem" fun leivik in der oyffirung fun di vilner unter dovid hermans rezhi "Nayer folksblat", Lodz, 28 August 1930.

  • Dr. W. Fallek -- "Der goylem" fun h. leivik oyfgefirt durkh der vilner trupe, "Lodz Tagenblat", 29 August 1930.

  • Chaim Leib Fuchs -- Leiviks "goylem" bay di "vilner" in lodz, "Lodzer verker", N' 36, 1930, "Naye folkstsaytung", Warsaw, 3, September 1930.

  • Ad. Sz. -- Golem, "Republika", Lodz, 27/8 1930.

  • Riz -- Zweimal "Der Golem", "Lodzer Volkszeitung", 27 August 1930.

  • St. Gelski -- "Golem" Lejwika, "Glos Poranny", Lodz, 28/7 1930.

  • Dr. W. Fallek -- "Golem" Lejwika u wilenczykow w lodzkim Teatrze Miejskim, "Nowy Dziennik", Krakow, 8/9 1930.

  • M. W. -- "Der goylem" fun h. leivik, "Lodzer arbayter", N' 32, 1930.

  • Nachum Mayzel -- H. leiviks "goylem" bay der vilner trupe, "Literarishe bleter", Warsaw, 35, 1930.

  • A foygel -- Der "goylem" bay di vilner, oyfgefirst in lodzer shtotishen teater. Rezhi dovid herman, "Haynt", Warsaw 29, August 1930.

  • Karlinius -- Tsum fersten mol -- "Goylem", "Moment", Warsaw, 29 August 1930.

  • Noach Prilutski -- "Der goylem" bay "di vilner", "Moment", Warsaw, 13 October 1930.

  • G. Ratner -- Der "goylem" bay di "vilner", "Arbayter tsaytung", Warsaw, N' 37, 1930.

  • Sh. Dreiter -- Der "goylem" bay di vilner, "Vilner tog", 30 October 1930.

  • A. Y. Grodzenski -- Bay di "Vilner", "Ovnt-kuryer", Vilna, 31 October 1930.

  • Michael Yo -- Misterye fun h. leivik (goylem) in 3 aktn mit a prolog, instsenirt fun mark arnshteyn, "Frimorgn", Riga, 22 September 1930.

  • Aaron Mark -- D. Hermans instsenizatsye fun leiviks "goylem", "Vilner tog", 7 November 1930.

  • A. V. [Vaterman] -- Derefnungs-farshtelung in id. Meunim teater, "Goylem" fun h. leivik, rezhi m. arnshteyn. "Nayer fraytik", Riga, N' 100, 1930.

  • S. [Edus] -- Notitsn in eyndrukn, "Nayer fraytik", riga, N' 100, 1930.

  • A. Glantz -- Gornisht hoben -- alts hoben, "Tog", N. Y., 30 November 1930.

  • Esther Yeselson -- "Keytn" fun h. leivik, "Fraye shriftn".

  • L. Esterman [vizenfeld] -- leivik's "orime melakhes" geshpilt fun amatoren, "Di idishe velt", Cleveland, 10 May 1931.

  • A. M-n -- Leivik's "betler", "Der idisher kuryer", Chicago, 5, June 1931.

  • N. Veynig -- Leiviks amerikanishe tragedye, "Literarishe bleter", Warsaw, 50, 1931.

  • A. Enbri -- Hsgt "kblim", B. Habima", "Kol nue", Tel Aviv, 1 January 1932.

  • I. L. Wohlman -- Bay der habima troupe, "Der idisher zhurnal", Toronto, 3 February 1932.

  • I. L. Wohlman -- Grusn fun eretz yisrael, "Der tog", N. Y., 10 March 1932.

  • J. Pat -- A revolutsye in der "oreme malkhes", "Vokhnshrift", Warsaw, 11 March 1932.

  • Avraham Bley -- Hebreishe forshtelungen in tel-aviv, "Di idishe velt", Philadelphia, 24 March 1932.

  • N. Mayzel -- H. leiviks "oreme malkhes" in varsh. dram. teater, "Literarishe bleter", Warsaw, 10, 1932.

  • Sh. Niger -- Hirsh lekert un dos folkslid , "Tog", N. Y., 7 May 1932.

  • H. Leivick -- Draytik yor hirsh lekert, "Yidish", N. Y., 5, 1932.

  • M. Olgin -- [article] "M'F",, N. Y., 16 June.

  • H. Leivick -- Polemish, "Yidish", N. Y., 7, 1932.

  • M. Olgin -- Leivik's kompliment, "M'F", N. Y., 27 June 1932.

  • Yitzhak Gurman -- "Kblim" B"Hamina", "Ktubim", Tel Aviv, H-u, 1932.

  • Yitzhak Gurman -- "Kblim", "Maznim", Tel Aviv, La, Lb, 1932.

  • L. Shneiderman -- A new formulation, "Razsvt?", Paris, 1, 1932.

  • i. L. Wohlman -- "Shop", "Kol nue", Tel Aviv, 12 August 1932.

  • A. Sh. Yuris -- H. leiviks "keytn" in der "habima", "Literarishe bleter", Warsaw, 3, 1932.

  • A. Sh. Yuris -- H. leiviks "shop" in hebreish "ahl", "Literarishe bleter", Warsaw, 33, 1932.

  • Avrom Bley -- Leiviks "shop" oyf der hebeisher bine, "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 4 September 1932.






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Adapted from the original Yiddish text found within the  "Lexicon of the Yiddish Theatre" by Zalmen Zylbercweig, Volume 2, page 1059.

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