Lives in the Yiddish Theatre


N. Rakov
(Nakhum, Nakhamya)

Born on 20 February 1866 in Oshmiana, Volin region, Polish Lithuania. Father, David-Zvi, was the chief bookkeeper in Devorah Romm's printing shop in Vilna. He went through the Russian kreyz school in Oshmiana, and he later attended for a year the technical school in Kremenchug, but the work there was too difficult for him, and he went away to Suwalki to take exams in a five-class gymnasium. Due to the political themes, he left Russia in 1885, living for a short time in Germany, then in Copenhagen, and in 1887 he arrived in London, England.

About his arrival to the Yiddish theatre, Sholem Perlmutter writes:

"As to his career in Yiddish theatre, Nakhum Rakov began as a prompter. ... There [in London] he became acquainted with the actors Max Rosenthal and Rudolph Marks, later also Jacob P. Adler. As in that time in the theatre there was a deficiency of youngsters who would have known how to read Yiddish, in a time of need Nakhum Rakov became a prompter. As every prompter hadn't any great success, he began to try his luck with the pen. Plays for the Yiddish stage began in that time were very much in demand, and when Rakov with a little caught up with the English language, he took nokhton Rudolph Marks, and they began to visit the English theatres in London. ... The first play that Rakov wrote in London, at the end of the eighties (1880s-ed.), was 'The Greenhorn in London,' and soon thereafter there arrived, 'The Holy Convert' [a tragic operetta, in four acts, six scenes. A handwritten copy can be found in the YIVO archives], 'The Exodus from Portugal' [a historical melodrama in five acts with a prologue, which can be found in the YIVO archives], 'The Strike in London' [an adaptation in five acts. A handwritten copy can be found in the YIVO archives], and 'Captain Dreyfus, or, Emil Zola.' These were al time-plays [tsayt-piesn.]"

Zalmen Reyzen remarks about his last play:

"The success of the piece, while the Dreyfus trial was going on, gave the possibility to the artist Morris Waxman to cause the Yiddish theatre in London to perk up, and this maintain him for a span of several years."

R., by himself, recalls in his autobiography that at first he had in London adapted a play from the Polish, and there he staged it in the summer of 1887. He was a prompter and often used to put together amateur troupes and with them acted in halls.

Abut this period, the historian of Yiddish theatre B. Gorin writes:

"London-- during the time that it was forbidden in Russia-- had the best Yiddish actors and actresses. London was the first place to which both individual actors and entire groups were attracted. Still, more than ever, the striving to be independent was manifested in this, as London had possessed only a small repertoire of several plays. From 1887, virtually not over the year's time, Nakhum Rakov would not deliver a new piece."

According to the musician F. Shtoyb, R. translated the famous Polish play, "Halka," which in the early years of Yiddish theatre in London, was played there with Aneta Gradner. Besides three original musical numbers, Ferdinand Shtoyb did the other compositions.

In 1902 [according to Reyzen it occurred in 1906] R. arrived in America and here was determined to continue as a playwright.

"However"-- writes Sh. Perlmutter -- "when Rakov in 1900 (1902) came to America, he already was.... and thus in 1902 he staged his first play in America with an unknown troupe in a New York theatre on 129th Street, the melodrama, 'In Wild Russia.' When the play did not take off, Rakov had a created a miracle with Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet," and created moreover an operetta, which at first was staged in the year 1903 in Boston, then in the province in New England, also with a slight success (and on 10 April 1907 in the People's Theatre 'The Oath by the Sefer Torah, or, The Jewish Romeo and Juliet,' music by Mogulesco and Spivak, scenes and staged by Boris Thomashefsky), and years later the play was staged by Samuel Rosenstein in New York's National Theatre."

On 10 April 1903 in the Thalia Theatre there was staged R.'s play, "The Idler" with the following personnel:

Avraham Meiblum
The Idler
Alter Zlates
  Hyman Meisel
Berta Kalich
Kalman Juvelier
Morris Moskowitz
Sigmund Feinman
Sonia Nadolsky
Jacob Katzman
Adolf Liansky
Mary Wilensky

The role of "Sonia" also was understudied by Dina Feinman, and on 17 April 1903 David Kessler performed in the role of the "batlan" (music by Brody.)

Here the play, afterwards known mor as "Der talmid khokhem," was published without the knowledge of the author N. Rakov. The Idler, or, Hokhtsayt per sphass, a lebensbild in four acts. Published by Amkroyt and Friend, Podgorze, 1909, 63 pp., 16, and later became one of the popular plays in Yiddish theatre repertoire and was played in the entire world of every popular actor, and also of many amateur groups.

In 1907, when Julius Adler returned from America, he also brought with him and staged the play in Europe. The same play was also adapted into Russian by the actor Yehuda Yulin, under the name, "Mendl Shneyerson, a drama in four acts," and it was published in Vilna through him and staged by Russian actors. the same play in 1938 was freely adapted by Israel Rosenberg under the name, "The Berdichever Cantor," and it was played in the Public Theatre, with Ludwig Satz in the title role.

About the original play, Sholem Perlmutter writes:

"One of the great successes with the Yiddish theatre audiences of that time was Solotorefsky's "Yeshiva bokher." The play was staged with great success across the entirety of America, and Rakov further concluded in Solotorefsky's, and had in the year 1903 written his play, "The Beggar" (later called, "Der talmid khokhem"), which was staged through David Kessler in the Thalia Theatre. The play was strongly received and for Rakov opened the doors of all the other Yiddish theatres."

On 18 September 1903 in the Windsor Theatre, there was staged R.'s play, "The State of Zion," music by Perlmutter and Wohl.

Soon thereafter R. began to compose an entire series of plays with the name, "Grine (Green)," and about this Sholem Perlmutter writes:

"This was in the time of the great Yiddish invasion of America, when every day there appeared to be brought from beyond the sea hundreds of "greenhorns"-- new immigrants. Rakov himself had to take note of the "greenhorn letters" and had begun to bring in entire bunches of the "green element" into his plays. Boris Thomashefsky was the first who was eager to behold the goods, and from Rakov he bought the entire "package of greenhorns," which he [Rakov] had brought him. And soon they began to be displayed in the newspapers, and on the posters the names of Rakov's plays: "The Green Student," "The Green Girl" [a handwritten "melodrama in four acts, reworked from the English," can be found in the YIVO archives], "The Green Wife," "The Green Father," "The Green Children." What is more, greenhorns were arriving to the country, all the better that Rakov had lived it. Thus he was so pleased with the "greenhorn letters" that when years later he translated for Max Rosenthal Alexander Dumas' "Kean," he called the play "The Green Actor."

According to B. Gorin, in 1904 there was staged R.'s "Di grine moyd, oder, A pasazhir fun keshenev," and in the same year there was also staged R.'s "The Green Actor," which later was played in Europe.

On 17 February 1905 there was staged by Thomashefsky in the People's Theatre, "Der griner bokher, a local comedy by Boris Thomashefsky, subject by Rakov, music by Friedsell."

In May 1905 through Thomashefsky there was staged in the People's Theatre R.'s tsaytbild in four acts, "The Revolution in Russia," adapted by B. Thomashefsky.

About the green rout, Bessie Thomashefsky also writes in her memoirs:

"Then (after the clear success of Shomer's 'Immigrants'), the 'Green Season' came, that was the name we called that winter, in which the People's Theatre had washed itself in 'greens': 'The Green Girl' (created from an English melodrama, 'Rachel Goldstein'), "The Green Children,' 'The Green Wife,' or, 'The Jewish Yankee Doodle' (antlien from Ab. Cahan's "Yekl der yenki") and 'The Green Student,' in short--a green season with many green dollars in the tens of thousands."

According to B. Gorin, in 1907 there was played R.'s comedies, "The Morning Star" and "Serkele," in 1910 "The Green Wife." In April 1911 (according to Gorin in 1905) there was played R.'s "The Country Girl," adapted by Thomashefsky (under the same name there was also staged Z. Libin's play, "The Wild Father.")

On 2 December 1910 in Adler's Thalia Theatre there was staged R.'s "A mentsh a malakh," and on 24 February 1911 in the Lipzin Theatre, 'Di ganevte" with Keni Lipzin in the title role (a handwritten "drama in four acts," found in the YIVO Archives.)

In 1912, according to B. Gorin, there was staged R.'s "The Jewish Crown." The same play also was noted by B. Gorin as having been staged under the name, "Al rakhum" in 1913, when it was earlier played under the name and later first adapted by Thomashefsky as "The Jewish Crown," and also staged in Europe (a handwriten "Al rakhum, a drama in four acts," which is found in the YIVO Archives.)

On 25 October 1912 in the Lipzin Theatre with Keni Lipzin there was staged R.'s play, "The Gangster."

In 1913 there was staged R.'s musical comedy, "Chantshe in America" (music by Joseph Rumshinsky), with Bessie Thomashefsky in the main role. This play later yearlong was the main hit in all the Yiddish theatres across the world, especially with Clara Young in the title role. The play, without the knowledge of he author, was published in 1914 in Warsaw; Publisher  'Teatr-bibliotek.' Chana'tshe in amerika. Operetta in four acts by N. Rakov. Music by Rumshinsky. Warsaw. Tre"d. 57 pp., 16."

According to Zalmen Reyzen, the play also was staged through Yiddish actors in Russia.

In February 1913 in Gabel's Comedy Theatre there was staged by Max Gabel r.'s translation of Semeon Yuskevitch's "Mentshn un khoyes" (adapted by Gabel) (a handwritten copy was found in the YIVO archives.)

In November 1913 in Adler's Theatre there was staged R.'s "Quiet Passion [?]", and on 5 December 1913 there was staged in the Lenox Theatre by Leon Blank, R.'s "Friends" (music by Friedsell) (a handwritten copy, "in four acts," can be found in the YIVO archives.)

According to B. Gorin in the same year, 1913, there were staged the following R.'s plays: "The Jewish State," "The Bigamist," "The Soul of Israel" (the play, without the knowledge of the author, was published in 1926 in Warsaw: "The Soul of My People (the Soul of Israel), an operetta in four acts by N. Rakov, publisher M. Goldfarb." 40pp., 16, and was also staged many times in Europe), the comedy "Shprintze in Coney Island," "Tserisene strune," the melodrama "The Politician, or, A Little Happiness" and "The Philanthropist."

On 19 September 1914 in Adler's People's Theatre there was staged, with Bessie Thomashefsky and Rosa Karp, R.'s musical comedy, "The Kingdom of Women" (music by Joseph Rumshinsky) [a handwritten copy, "musical-form in four acts," can be found in the YIVO archives.]

On 5 November 1915 in Kessler's Second Avenue Theatre there was staged by David Kesler "The Mirror of Life," a drama in four acts with a prologue and epilogue, by Kalmanowitz and Rakov [the play a little earlier was staged in the Lyric Theatre under the name, "His Last Dollar."]

[A handwritten copy under the name, "The Mirror of Life," a lebnsbild in four acts, prologue and epilogue, can be found in the YIVO archives.]

According to B. Gorin, in the same year, there was staged R.'s "Love and Hate" and "Without a Mother."

On 14 April 1916 in Bessie Thomashefsky's "People's Theatre," there was staged through Max Rosenthal R.'s "Forbidden Fruit," music by Joseph Rumshinsky, with the participation of David Kessler and Bessie Thomashefsky, and on 24 April 1916 Boris Thomashefsky staged in his National Theatre R.'s "Hello New York, a musical comedy, music by Perlmutter and Wohl."

According to B. Gorin, in the year 1916 there also may have been staged R.'s plays: "Where is She?", "Guest Gift [?]" and "In America" [played on 14 June 1917 in the National Roof Garden, lyrics by Gilrod, music by Brody.]

On 26 January 1917 in Thomashefsky's National Theatre, there was staged through Boris Thomashefsky, Rakov's and Miller's [Hyman Miller from Cleveland], "Jewish War Brides" a tsayt-bild in four acts.

Moishe Nadir, as was his way, is very base about the play:

"'War Brides' is not any shtik-- a shtik-snveynerey. It isn't even talentloz, as the authors, moreover, haven't enough talent... Acting in the play became so bad, as it past for such an absheylekh theatre piece."

On 2 February 1917 in the Lyric Theatre there was staged R.'s "A Life for a Life" by Rakov and Siegel. In the Lenox Theatre there it was played under the name, "White Slaves of New York."

On 28 September 1917 in the Lyric Theatre there was staged R.'s "Shadows of Life" in four acts.

On 28 September 1918 in the Lyric Theatre there was staged R.'s "Frivilous Youth [?]" in four acts, and in the same year in the Lenox Theatre, and then in the Second Avenue Theatre, there was staged R.'s Yiddish adaptation of "Potash and Perlmutter," and also R.'s play "Victims of Love."

On 1 November 1918 in the Lenox Theatre there was staged through Nathan Goldberg, "Di oreme raykhe leyt," musical comedy by N. Rakov. [a handwritten "Di oreme gibirim (The Poor, Rich Men [?]," a comedy in four acts, which can be found in the YIVO archives.

On 10 January 1919 in Gabel's Theatre, there was staged "Leave it to Katie," a musical comedy in four acts by N. Rakov and Max Gabel, lyrics by Isidore Lillian, music by Arnold Perlmutter."

According to B. Gorin in 1919 there was also staged R.'s "How Men Love."

On 30 January 1920 in Gabel's Theatre there was staged by Max Gabel R.'s drama "Sins of the Parents [?]."

On 2 September 1920 in the People's Theatre there was staged through Max Rosenthal "The Door to Happiness," a comedy-drama with a prologue and epilogue by N. Rakov, music by Joseph Brody."

On 11 March 1921 Max Rosenthal staged in the People's Theatre, "The Interrupted Wedding," a melodrama in four acts by N. Rakov and Simon Wolf.

On 23 April 1921 in Kessler's Second Avenue Theatre there was staged "Get Married," a musical comedy in three acts with a prologue, by Nahum Rakov, music by Joseph Rumshinsky."

On 19 January 1923 in the Hopkinson Theatre there was staged "The Girl From the Orphanage [?]," in four acts, by N. Rakov.

On 5 October 1923 in the Lenox Theatre there was staged by Nathan Goldberg R.'s melodrama "A Strange Child [?]."

On 19 October 1923 Isidore Hollander staged in the Hopkinson Theatre the moral drama "Secrets of a Married Wife" by N. Rakov.

On 30 November 1923 Max and Sabina Rosenthal guest-starred in the Liberty Theatre with "The Hothead," in four acts by N. Rakov.

On 28 March 1924 through Lebedeff and Rosenstein there was staged in the National Theatre R.'s operetta, "Mendel in Japan," music by Peretz Sandler. The play was adapted by Israel Rosenberg.

On 12 September 1924 in Lillian's Lyric Theatre there was staged through Morris Krohner, "The Big Intrigue [?], a melodrama in three acts with a prologue by Nahum Rakov.

On 4 December 1925 there was staged in the Irving Place Theatre there was staged by Ludwig Satz "A Millionaire in Trouble [?], a comedy in four acts by N. Rakov, lyrics and music by Ludwig Satz."

On 25 December 1925 Misha German staged in the Hopkinson Theatre R.'s comedy-drama, "Her Wedding Night."

On 28 March 1926 Jacob Kalich staged in the Second Avenue Theatre "Katinka, subject taken from N. Rakov, music by Joseph Rumshinsky, lyrics by Molly Picon and Boris Rosenthal."

In June 1927 in London R. staged the play "A Son's Sacrifice," and on 18 January 1929 in Gabel's People's Theatre, there was staged with Max Gabel and Jennie Goldstein in the main roles, "A Child from Two Mothers, in four acts by Max Gabel, idea from N. Rakov."

In Nahum Lipovsky's theatre archives, one can find in the "Vilna" YIVO, the following manuscripts of R., which have survived in New York:

  • "The Bigamist, or, Di heylike, a drama in four acts"

  • "The Jewish Crown"

  • "Shprintze in Coney Island, a farce-comedy in four acts"

  • "Dem tsadiks kale" [could be Lateiners?]

  • "Di ganevte, a drama in four acts"

  • "Mayn folk yisroel, a drama in four acts"

In the archive of YIVO one also fids the following manuscripts with R.'s name of which, according to the names, it is assumed that many of them belong to others:

  • "Shotns fun zind" (in four acts)

  • "Di oreme giborim," a comedy in four acts

  • "Di farshtoysene," an original drama in four acts

  • "A bisele glik" (in four acts)

  • "Nikolai's naslednik," a musical burlesque in one act, staged in 1906

  • "Libes ziser troym," a musical farce-comedy with a forshpil in three acts

  • "Kapital un arbet, oder, Dos goldene kalb"

  • "Khatzel hamelekh," oder, "Der kenig in zak," a burlesque with singing in oneact

  • "Der gengster," a drama in four acts

  • "Dos treye kind," a lebnsbild in four acts

  • "Ver iz zay"

  • ""Di unruhige tsaytn," a melodrama in four acts

  • "Der anderer," a comedy-drama in four acts

  • "Dem shusters tokhter," a melodrama in four acts

  • "Gelt," a comedy with singing in four acts

  • "Getlekhe libe," a family drama in four acts

  • "Di tseshterte khupe," a melodrama in four acts

  • "Di groyse intrige," a melodrama in three acts with a prologue

  • "Di kraft fun shikzal" (n four acts)

  • "Der morgenshtern," a comedy in four acts

  • "Gost ganev" (in four acts)

  • "Bay di vasern fun babel," a historical drama with singing in four acts

  • "Di amerikaner glikn" [the same play under the name] "Der arbeter," a drama in four acts

  • "Gekoyft un batsolt," oder, "Di ervakhung," a lebensbild in four acts

  • "Mish-mash," an operetta in four acts

  • "In vildn rusland," a drama in four acts, five scenes with singing and dance, adapted from the English

  • "Muter un tokhter," a drama in three acts

  • "Grine vayber" (in four acts)

  • "Oyfn pardi," a drama in four acts

  • "Serele di shoyrtmaykerin," a comedy in four acts

  • "Hofenung, toyt und libe," a tragic legend in four acts

  • "Ir man," a drama in four acts

  • "Shotns fun lebn," a comedy-drama in four acts

  • "On a mame," a drama in four acts

  • "A zuns opfer," a drama in four acts

  • "Farbotene frukht," a comedy-drama in four acts

  • "Di naye velt," a drama in three acts

  • "Nor a froy," a lebnsbild in three acts with an epilogue, translated from the English by M. Goldberg, freely adapted by N. Rakov

  • "Hit eyere tekhter," a comedy-drama in four acts by Rakov and Siegel

  • A manuscript of "Der batlan, oder, Der yidisher din," a lebnsbild in four acts

About R.'s last years Sholem Perlmutter writes:

"N. Rakov in the last years of his life lived in Mount Vernon. None of the theatre family ever visited him, except once by Isidor Solotorefsky, who was there to be a neighbor, but where they did, that his wife, with whom he had married in London, was not Jewish, and she hated society. Except they had kept two big dogs that Rakov had constantly kept with him in the house, and as such they never knew when he was sick, and also not when he was dead-- not even his closest neighbor Solotorefsky. In the Yiddish press{?], there was not even any notice after his death and nobody knows anything [?] where his grave his."

The last information shtime nit, because in the "Forward" there was the largest notice, that R. passed away on 29 December 1927, and was laid to his external rest at the plot of the Yiddish Theatrical Alliance at Mt. Hebron Cemetery(Flushing, New York.)

About R., as a dramatist, Sh. Perlmutter maintains that:

"Nahum Rakov never lived in peace with the theatre profession. He felt that his service as a dramatist was very small, and certainly among the recognized dramatists-- a sign: everyone looking at his defects, criticizing him. Therefore it was every subject, the manager as the actor, much more than the star, who always had the last word in realizing a play. And because of this, for himself, did not receive praise, Rakov many times reduced his own words as a dramatist.

The first time Rakov had to fight strongly for his position in theatre. However, later his melodramas began to please the audience, and Solotorefsky had in him an entirely non-kshhdikn competitor. Imitating Solotorefsky, Rakov also took for his material for melodramas from American Jewish life. He adapted it-- perhaps with little talent, but with a certain mechanic, catching from Solotorefsky, and thus they knitted together their plays from the public, with their dramatic conflicts and situations. ....Rakov, however, had written melodramas not of the finest sort. Even his operettas were highly melodramatic, because actually he had never written any operettas. .... Rakov's plays were much poorer than Solotorefsky's, and nevertheless he could more quickly sell a melodrama than Solotorefsky. Rakov, as a former prompter had a mouth for reading his melodramas, acting out every dramatic situation and for certain scenes he used to get so excited that the entire troupe, between each other, used to have pity on him. Thus he used to with his tears remind the star and the manager, and they bought the play from him. Initially later, at the rehearsals, they used to be reminded that the scenes were clumsily written, and they had to cut them. Moreover after he had a "poor memory." He used to adapt, or only rewrite foreign plays and then submit them alone, that they were his. Thus there were the events with Yuskevich's "Mina Glank," and "Mentshn un khoyes," with Harry Kalmanowitz's "Mirror of Life," with his own play, "The Embarassed Bride," and many others. This often brought dissension and legal judgments, but Rakov always continued his habit."

An entire other view was published by Zalmen Reyzen:

"In his melodramas and operettas R. stood above the average Yiddish shund dramatist, and some of his theatre pieces were known to be considered as transferred from the Lateiner shund to the Gordin repertoire. His plays were staged in New York, however also in London, Poland, Russia, South Africa, etc. During the First World War, when performing in Yiddish was forbidden in Yiddish, the Yiddish actors, such as Nozyk, Tsuker et al also staged R.'s play, "Der batlan" and "Chantshe in America" in the Russian translation.

R. possessed a certain intelligence, good knowledge of Russian and English, was a quiet, modest human being, but was an ugly drunkard. In 1927 he was the chairman of the [Yiddish] dramatic league in America, then went back to London, where he had two sons in the English Air-Flot. His wife, with whom he had married in London, was a Christian, and after his death she did not allow him to be honored in the Jewish cemetery, but it was not concluded."

In the necrology of the "Forward" it is said:

"Nahum Rakov belongs to the older dramatists of the Isidore Solotorefsky school, which in his time took a great profession onto the melodramatic stage-- everywhere Yiddish theatre was played. ....In his plays the great Yiddish stars excelled....Nakhum Rakov made many attempts to write better plays. One of them was staged by the deceased Jacob P. Adler.... The drama was called, "The Ruined Home[?]," and it is a type of imitation of Gordin's "Kreutzer Sonata." Some plays were staged by Max Rosenthal, and generally his plays became played in all the Yiddish theatres. Most of his plays were a kind of form and were nemen oys by the public."

R.'s published plays were:

[1] N. Rakov
     Der batlan, oder, Hokhtsayt per shpass
     Lebensbild in 4 acts
     Pshemishl, publishing house of Amkroyt et fraynd

[2] Ferlag "Teater-bibliotek."
     Khana'tshe in amerika
     Operetta in 4 acts
     fun N. Rakov. music fun rumshinsky
     Warsaw tre"d. [.16, 57 pp.]

[3] Di neshome fun mayn folk
     (Di neshome fun yisroel)
     Operetta in 4 acts by N. Rakov
     Prayz 1 zl.

[.16, 40 pp.] 1926, Warsaw, Publisher M. Goldfarb
Mendel Schneerson, a drama in four acts by A. Heman (Yulin)
Editor, author, Vilna.


Sh. E.; M. E. from Ferdinnd Shtoyb.

  • Zalmen Reyzen-- "Lexicon of Yiddish Literature," Vol. IV, pp. 243-47.

  • B. Gorin-- "History of Yiddish Theatre," Vol. II, pp. 151-152, 274, 282.

  • Joel Entin-- Dr batlan, "Forward," N.Y., 13 April 1903.

  • D.B. [Sh. Janovsky]-- In theater, Fraye arbeter shtime, 11 March 1910.

  • D.B.-- In theater, dort, 22 April 1911.

  • D.B.-- In theater, dort, 15 November 1913.

  • D.B.-- In theater, dort, 24 October 1914.

  • D.B.-- In theater, dort, 27 November 1915.

  • D.B.-- In theater, dort, 17 February 1917.

  • D.B.-- In theater, dort, 25 January 1919.

  • Hillel Rogoff-- In tsvey yidishe theatere, "Forward," N.Y., 8 Oct. 1918.

  • B. Gorin-- Naye shtiker oyf der yidisher bine, "Morning Journal," N.Y., 9 Oct. 1918.

  • A.F--n [Frumkin]-- In teater, "Fraye arbeter shitime," N.Y., 21 February 1920.

  • M. Nadir-- "Mayne hent hobn fargosn dos blut," pp. 93-96.

  • Dr. A. Mukdoni-- Mendel in yapan, "Morning Journal,"  N.Y., 4 April 1924.

  • B.Y. Goldstein-- In yidishen un englishen teater, "tog," N.Y., 4 April 1924.

  • Israel the Yankee-- "Mendel in yapan" in neshonal, "Yidishe tagblatt," N.Y., 4 April 1924.

  • Ab. Cahan-- Theater notitsen, "Forward," N.Y., 8 april 1924.

  • L--t-- Yapanezisher gezang in an idisher oysteytshung, "Frayhayt," N.Y. 11 April 1924.

  • L. Kesner-- "A milyoner oyf tsores," "Yidishe tagblatt," N.Y., 11 Dec. 1925.

  • B.Y. Goldstein-- A komedy drame un a tragishe komedye, "Tog," N.Y., 11 Dec. 1925.

  • Ab. Cahan-- Etlikhe teater notitsn, "Forward," N.Y., 30 April 1926.

  • Kritikus-- A zun's opfer, "Di tsayt," London, 27 June 1927.

  • Necrology in "Forward", N.Y., 30 December 1927.

  • Der lebediker-- "Shpil un lebn," Warsaw, pp. 133-35.

  • Sholem Perlmutter-- "Yidishe dramatistn un teater-kompozitors," New York, 1952, pp. 184-188.

  • Jacob Mestel-- "70 yor teater-repertaur," N.Y., 1954, pp. 27, 33, 36-40, 57, 88-93, 95, 97, 109.






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Adapted from the original Yiddish text found within the  "Lexicon of the Yiddish Theatre" by Zalmen Zylbercweig, Volume 4, page 2497.

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