Lives in the Yiddish Theatre


Isidore Solotorefsky


According to Reisen's "Lexicon," S. was born around 1873; according to the assertion of S., it was December 27, 1875, in Yelisavetgrad, Ukraine. His father was a cotton maker who passed away in 1879. S. was then sent to Belaya Tserkov, where he was raised by his mother at the time. Due to the assimilated environment, he didn't take any Yiddish studies, only Russian and German. As a youth he lost himself, wandering across Russia, was an employee in a library in Yelisavetgrad, worked as a newspaper seller on the Kharkov-Nikolayev Railroad line, and hereby happily read dramatic literature especially.

In 1890 S. went off to America, and in Fall River searched out his brother Avraham, who from time to time used to play in Yiddish theatre with "amateurs." Here S. was a worker in a textile factory, studied to be a weaver, and happily in the group performed with his brother, debuting as "Heyse Babkelekh" in Goldfaden's "Koldunye." Now. S. began to study English and Yiddish and became familiar with the novels of Shomer and Tanenbaum. Later S. was a peddler, a boot polisher, a newspaper salesman, an agent, participated happily in Yiddish amateur productions in Providence, Fall River, Boston and New Haven.

In 1893 he began to act professionally (as Simon in Lateiner's "Joseph and his Brothers"), with the Lowenwirth acting family, and he soon went over to Philadelphia to Feldman, then he played



with Samuel Tornberg in a hall in Brownsville, New York, and later traveled across the province and became director of a small troupe in the New England states.

Due to a lack of repertoire, S. often used to translate theatre songs from English to Yiddish, and from Yiddish to English, and they sung them in concerts. Many of these songs were published in 1897 in a special booklet in Montreal.

In 1895 S. translated the English play, "Mankind," and staged it with "amateurs." In the same year he wrote his first play, "Der farfaser (The Author)," a drama in four acts," which was staged (with Sarah Katzman, Sonia Nadolsky, Adolph Abramov, Moshe Silberstein, Louis Coopersmith, the author et al.) in Germania Assembly Rooms, New York (Bowery, between Houston and 1st Street.) The play was performed five times. Soon thereafter he staged his play in Newark (with about the same participants), "Messiah, or, the False Prophet, a historical drama of the Jews in Rome," which had, due to the subject matter, evoked protests by the public and more than once was not performed. Thus, none of the troupe wanted to risk doing it anywhere and take the responsibility to stage the play.

After wandering for a short time across the province, S. also performed with "amateurs" in Montreal Gordin's "The Jewish King Lear," (playing the role of "David Moishele"), and then brought several professional actors to the Monument Nationale Theatre, with whom in 1895 there was laid the foundation for a stable Yiddish theatre. In 1896 S. arrived in Baltimore, where he performed as a comic for a season with Largman, and in 1897 in Morris Finkel's and Mogulesco's troupe in Philadelphia's Arch Street Theatre.

Exploiting the relevance of the Spanish-American War, S. wrote a play, "The Jewish Volunteer," which was soon performed. In the same year of 1897, he also wrote his melodrama, "The Jewish Hamlet," which in the same evening was staged in Philadelphia (with Max Rosenthal as "Avigdorl"), and in New York in the Windsor Theatre, where S. performed as an actor. Here the play was staged through Thomashefsky under the name "Di shvarts khupe, oder, Di yidishe martirer," music by Friedsell, with the following personnel:
Role: Actor/Actress:
Pitse Shemash
Sholom Din
Leon Blank
Annie Manne
Boris Thomashefsky
Bela Gudinsky
Sophie Karp
Leon Gold
Berl Bernstein
Solomon Manne
Leyzer Goldstein
Bessie Thomashefsky
Sabina Weinblatt

In these productions the author participated in a role--"Yankel khazn"--which was specially written for him. The role later on was no longer played.

About the staging of the play, Bessie Thomashefsky recalls in her memoirs:
"We performed the masterwork, which would end the season, but the play received great acclaim, the public sought additional tickets, and the box office was filled with dollars. It was only a shame that the summer had come and they had to stop performing."

About the play, B. Gorin writes:
"Years later Solotorefsky removed from here (Goldfaden's "The Mute Bride") the entire scene with the rabbi and sexton, and with all the jokes for his "Yeshiva bokher."

The play, which later became popular under the name, "Der yeshiva bokher," was brought to Europe in 1907 by Julius Adler, who staged it there and since then it has remained there in repertoire.

In 1912 the play was staged as a film  by the Riga Gezelshaft Brider Pate.

In 1914 the play, without the knowledge of the author, was published in Warsaw as, "Der yeshiva bokher (or the Jewish Hamlet,) a play in four acts and six scenes by 'Zlotarevsky.'"

In 1897 in the Windsor Theatre for Friedsell's benefit, "Der yidishe mzshik, oder, Di dorfs-yidn, lebensbild, music by Friedsell," was staged.

1898-99--S. was engaged as a dramatist and actor in New York's Thalia Theatre. Here in this season there was staged his "Avrahamele the Musician, a musical melodrama, music by J. Brody," with Kessler, Feinman, Kalich, Mogulesco, Bina and Mendel Abramowitz, Morris Moskowitz, Hyman Meisel, Feivele Friedman," and his melodrama, "Di yidishe zaza (The Jewish Gypsy)," with Berta Kalich.

1899-1900--S. played across the province and staged in Philadelphia's Columbia Theatre his play, "Di mame (with Bela Gudinsky in the title role), which later was staged in New York's Thalia Theatre. In the same season in New York's Thalia Theatre there was produced his translation of an English dramatization, "Uncle Tom's Cabin," after Beecher Stowe, in New York's People's Theatre--his play, "Der kol boynik, oder Di yidn in Chmelnitsky's tsaytn, music by S. Mogulesco" (the play was played here for a half-season and at the same time was also playing in Philadelphia's Columbia Theatre), and to his benefit in the Thalia Theatre, there was staged by Jacob Cone the play, "Der lmd vinik," which later was performed in the provinces.

1900-1901--S. was engaged as an actor in the Thalia Theatre, where he produced his translations: "Di bels (The Bells), or, Di ermordung fun a poylishn yid"" (The play was staged in 1916 through M. D. Waxman in Poland. According to Jacob Mestel the play, in another translation, under the name, "The Polish Jew," was staged in Gimpel's Theatre, Lemberg, around 1907 or 1908., "Louie XI" by Shedaden (sp) (staged through Kessler for his benefit), the operetta "La maskot," under the name "Dos gliks-kind, oder, Dos shretle" and "Samson the Mighty" (according to Salvin's verses), and S.'s play, "Der khli zmr, music by J. Brody" (with Kessler), which was later played with several others in the province under the name "Der griner muzikant (The Green Musician)." In the same season through Sigmund Feinman there was staged in Philadelphia S.'s play, "Shabes kodesh, or, Rafael de Mendoza."

For the 1901-1902 season S. was engaged as an actor in the Grand Theatre. In that time there was staged S.'s play, "The Jewish Anna Karenina" (in the Windsor Theatre, with Mary Epstein in the title role), which then was played across the province under the name, "Der paynter," and without the knowledge of the author, was published in 1909 in Lemberg. In the Grand Theatre that season there was produced S.'s dramatization of Tolstoy's "Skhis hmsim" under the name, "Resurrection" (with Keni Lipzin as "Katusha Maslova"), and his play, "The Truth, a dramatic tragedy, music by Friedsell" (with Sophie Karp), and in the People's Theatre: his play, "The Apostate" (with Bela Gudinsky, Jacob P. Adler, Malvina Lobel and Max Rosenthal), and his dramatizations of Dymow's novel, "Count of Monte Cristo" with Max Rosenthal in the title role), and from the English novel "Vendetta" by Marie Corelli, under the name, "Fabi romana" (with Max Rosenthal in the tile role.)

1902-1903--S. continued to act in the Grand Theatre, and there was staged: In the People's Theatre--"Der moderner kin un hvl" (with Thomashefsky and Max Rosenthal in the title roles), which also were staged in Europe, "Der khrm in bis-hamikdash, a historic operetta, music by Y. Belzer" and "Der bis hamikdash unter der erd, oder, Di yidisher strasenzingerin, music by Friedsell" (free adaptation of Victor Hugo's novel "The Hunchback of Notre Dame"); in the Windsor Theatre: "Der badkhan" (with Kessler and Tobias), and in the Thalia Theatre: "Adela" (with Kessler and Kalich).

1903-1904--S. traveled across the province and staged in Newark his play, "The Twentieth Century, or, the Destruction of Kishinev" (with Gavel and Tobias), in Boston--"American Happiness" (with Silbert), which was also later staged in New York's People's Theatre under the name, "Parisian Borders," "Di blinde" (with Sabina Lakser in the tile role), and "Der bel-tsedek" (with Silbert). In the same season, also in New York's Grand Theatre, there was staged through Adler, S.'s plays, "Der goldener leyter" and "Der shturm in der familye."

1904-1905--S. played in Chicago, where he staged his translation of Chrikov's "Yidin," and his own play, "Di revolutsion in Rusland."

1905-1906--S. continued in Boston, where he staged his play, "R' Avale ashkenazi" (with Silbert). The play in 1909 was published  in Lemberg without the knowledge of the author and was often produced on the Yiddish stage in Europe, especially in Galicia. Almost the entire 1904-5 season in New York's Windsor Theatre there was staged S.'s play "Di shtile khasene" (with Juvelier, Prager and Sam Kasten.) Some of the same season was in New York's Casino Theatre, with Rose Greenfield and Samuel Greenberg playing in "Di model" and "Der arbeter."

1906-1907--S., with Levinson, performed as the directors of the troupe in Boston's Grand Opera House and in the environs. In that season in New York's Lyric Theatre there was staged S.'s play, "Der mames man" (with Charlie Nathanson and his wife), which was later staged across the American province and also very often in Europe (through Glimer and his wife), under the name, "Di eyzerne froy." In the Windsor Theatre there was staged, 'Der gr" (with Fernarndo Eylesko (sp), Juvelier and Blank), and "Di nekome fun a froy" (with Eylesko). Both plays were also staged on the Yiddish stage in Europe. Due to his wife's illness, S. interrupted his playing in Boston and put together a troupe, with wh0om he played in Chicago's Metropolitan Theatre. There there was also staged his play, "Di grine mame" (with Maurice Schwartz, Finkelstein, Gertner and David Shoengold.)

Some of the season in the Clinton Theatre (with Mae Simon) there was staged, "The Dressmaker."

1907-1908--S. played in Chicago, partly in vaudeville and partly in legitimate theatre. Here there was staged his plays, "Der krbn" (with Lavitz, Joseph Shoengold et al), which later was played under the name, "Der volf un dos shefele," and the melodrama, "Ellis Island" (with German and Gerstenzang.)

1908-1909--S. played with the Silberts in Aged's Clinton Theatre in New York, In Lipzin's Theatre in that season with great success there was staged his melodrama, "Di vayse shklafin" with the following personnel:
Role: Actor/Actress:
Elihu Zeitlin
Morris Moskowitz
Keni Lipzin
Hyman Meisel
Jacob Katzman
Mary Epstein
Nettie Tobias
Rosetta Cohn
Jacob Cone

In 1910 there was published "Di ertselung fun der berimter drama di vayse shklavin fun I. Solotorefsky" (21 pp.), which included and introduction for the play with a foreword. As the author is not over (?), in that time there was also published a related brochure in English.

The play in 1911 was staged through Thomashefsky in Europe and then remained in that repertoire.

In 1926 the play was published in Warsaw as the author "Jacobi's," and under the name, "Di vayse shklafen, a drama in four acts (48 pp., 16).

In the same season (1908-1909), in the Lipzin Theatre, there was also staged S.'s play, "Di zinderin" (with Moskowitz and Lipzin), in the People's Theatre, through Thomashefsky, his play, "Dos tsveyte vayb," which later was staged in Europe, and in 1928 published anonymously in Warsaw under the name, "Di shtifmuter, a drama in 3 acts," (52 pp., 16), and in the Thalia Theatre through Kessler, his play, "Khaverim."

1909-1910: S. was engaged as a dramatist in the Lipzin Theatre, where there was staged his plays: "Kartn (Cards)," "Kinder fun di elterens zind," later called "Damaged Children" and "Di egunah (The Foresaken)" (all with Lipzin and Moskowitz), and in the Thalia Theatre--"Di moderne froy (The Modern Wife?)" with Sara and Jacob P. Adler.

1910-1911--S. was engaged as a dramatist in Kessler's Theatre, where there was staged his play, "Oyf der elter" (with Kessler, Lobel and Berl Bernstein). In the same season in the Eldridge Street Theatre there was staged his plays: "Gelt libe un shande (Money, Love and Shame), with Ida Dworkin, Louie Bockshitzky and Mike Wilensky, which during wartime was often put on in Poland, and without the knowledge of the author, was published in 1923 in Warsaw (58 p., 16), and "Di umgliklikhe." In the Third Street Theatre during this season, there was staged his plays: "Evige libe" (with Gabel), "Farkoyfte libe," (which previously was staged in Chicago under the name, "Der mlakh hmus") (with Samuylow and Ida Goldstein), and "Laydenshaft (Passion" (with Nathan and Rose Goldberg.) The play a year later was staged in Philadelphia under the name, "Loksus," in the Lipzin Theatre: "Erlekh batsolt" (with Lipzin). In the summer time S. partnered with Liza Silbert and Morris Krohner, directed with the Third Street Theatre, where there was staged his play, "Zey erlekh," which later was staged in the People's Theatre through Bessie Thomashefsky under the name, "Susie Brenn."

1911-1912--S. staged in Miner's Theatre his play, "Diamonds," (with Jacob Frank, Gustave Schacht and Sabina Lakser). In the National Theatre Thomashefsky staged S.'s "Der eyntsiger zun," and the operetta, "Di yidishe fon," (music by Perlmutter and Wohl), which later would be staged in the province under the name, "Ben-Yisrael."

1912-1913--S. withdrew from the stage. In the Fifth Avenue Theatre there was then staged his plays: "Di yidishe 400, music. Melodrama, music by Friedsell and Brody" (with Clara Rafalo and Annie Meltzer), and "Hot svit hot, melodrama," in the Odeon Theatre: Bat Zion, musical melodrama, music by Shapiro (with Prager in the title role), in Lyric: "Di sayles lady (The Sales Lady)" (with Malvina Lobel, Anna Appel, Ida Fine. Play director--author), and in the Roof Garden of the Second Avenue Theatre: "Brider (Brothers)" (with Sam Schneier, Schwartz and Kasten) in "Laydis foyrst (Ladies First?), music. Melodrama" (both music---Joseph Rumshinsky).

1913-1914--In Philadelphia there was staged S.'s melodrama, "Lebedike yesoymim (The Living Orphans)," which soon thereafter was played for twenty-five weeks in New York's "People's Theatre" (with Adler and Louie Birnbaum).

1914-1915--In the People's Theatre there was staged S.'s melodrama, "Der prayz fun libe (The Price of Love?)" (with Max Rosenthal and Bessie Thomashefsky), which at the same time was staged through Adler in Philadelphia, in the Leonx Theatre: "Dos goldene shteygele" (with Nathan and Rose Goldberg). At one time in the Lyric, Lenox and Liberty Theatres there was staged, "Der amerikaner priziv (Conscription, or, Jewish Volunteer)," and in the Second Avenue Theatre: the melodrama "Dos royte likht (The Red Light)" (with Lipzin, Jacob Cone, Bina Abramowitz and Juvelier.)

1915-1916--Thomashefsky staged in the National Theatre S.'s melodrama, "Dem tayfls makht (The Devil's Power)," which at the same time was staged in the Liberty Theatre (with Juvelier and Bina Abramowitz), in the Lenox (with Nathan and Rose Goldberg), in the Lyric (with Lowenfeld), as well as in Philadelphia (with Adler). Also his melodrama, "Milkhome blut (Blood of War?), at the same time staged in the Liberty (through Juvelier, Bina Abramowitz and Rose Karp), in the Lyric, in the Lenox (through Goldberg), and in Philadephia (through Adler). In the same season in the Second Avenue Theatre there was staged his "Libe un Lebn, oder, Der prayz fun zind" (with Kessler, Schwartz and Berl Bernstein), on the Roof Garden of the National Theatre: "Summer with Him, musical play," and "In dem hoyz vu men veynt un men lakht" (both music--by Friedsell), and on the Roof Garden of the National Theatre S.'s comedy, "Oy, ir mener."

1916-1917--There was staged: "Yesoymim fun der velt (Orphans of the World)" in the Liberty Theatre (with Joseph Shoengold), "A meydl on a harts (A Girl Without a Heart)," and "A meydls gut nomen (A Girl's Good Name)" in Gabel's Theatre (with Gabel), "Der governor (The Governor)" in the Lyric Theatre, and "Zise kholoymes (Sweet Dreams)" in the Liberty Theatre (with Thomashefsky), which also was staged in the Second Avenue Theatre five times with Kessler, and a year later in the same theatre for twenty-five weeks with the Adlers.

1917-1918--There were staged: "Dos rekht tsu lebn (The Right to Live)" in the Second Avenue (with Adler and his daughter Stella) in Philadelphia--"Veding-ring (Wedding Ring)," "Vi a man libt" and "Muter libe (Mother's Love)" (all with Goldinburg)--music by Sandler), and "Libe un flikht (Love and Duty)," which also was staged in New York's People's Theatre (music by Friedsell).

1918-1919--There was staged: "Kinder kumt a heym (Children, Come Home), music by Wohl" (in the National Theatre, staged and played by Thomashefsky, and in Philadelphia and the province, staged by Anshel Schorr, with music by Sandler), "Der kenig fun libe (The King of Love?)" (in the National Theatre with Goldinburg), and "Blinde libe (Blind Love)" (in the People's Theatre with Lobel and Rosenstein).

1919-1920--"Gezets fun der natur (The Law of Nature) (in December 1919 in the People's Theatre, staged through Max Rosenthal, music--Friedsell, acted by Rosenthal, Lobel, Graf, Goldie Lubritsky et al), "Dos land fun trern (The Land of Tears)--a tsayt-bild" (played twenty times in the People's Theatre with Rosenthal, Graf, Nettie Tobias et al). And in May 1920 in the Lyric Theatre, under the direction of the author, "Dos raykhe yesoymele (The Rich Orphan)" (with Celia Adler and Charles Nathanson), which was later staged in the province under the name, "Dos orem-raykhe yesoymele (The Poor-Rich Orphan)"

1920-1921--"Libe un laydenshaft (Love and Passion)" (on 7 May 1921 in Gabel's Theatre with Mae Simon). The play in 1926, without the knowledge of the author, was published in Warsaw: "I. Zolotarevsky, Libe un leydenshaft. Lebens-bild in four acts," and was often staged in the Yiddish theatres of Europe. In the Lyric Theatre and in the Lenox Theatre (with Nathan Goldberg) there was staged: "Nina, oder, A dinst bay ir eygn kind," and "A mame on a kind," and in the People's Theatre--"Edele hertser" (with Rosenthal, Greta Meier and Louie Birnbaum).

1921-1922--"Der prayz fun a get (The Price of Divorce)" (staged in December 1921 in the People's Theatre, stage director--Max Rosenthal, music--Brody, played by Goldinburg, Satz and Rosenthal), "Yede froy's farlang (Every Woman's Desire)" (staged in the Lipzin Theatre with Jennie Valiere), "In a velt fun zind (In a World of Sin)" (staged on 1 January 1922 in the Lipzin Theatre with Jennie Valiere), "Far ire kinder (For Her Children)" (in the Lipzin Theatre with Jennie Goldstein), and in the People's Theatre--"Darf a froy dertseyln? (Should a Woman Tell?)" (with Goldinburg and Rosenthal).

1922-1923--In Chicago there was staged S.'s "A mames neshome (A Mother's Soul)" (with Minnie Axelrad and Joseph Shoengold), which also in the same season was staged in Philadelphia under the name, "Di mame fun der velt (The Mother of the World?)" with Dora Weissman, and in October 1923 in the Second Avenue Theatre under the name, "A mames opfer (A Mother's Sacrifice)" (played for eighteen weeks with Jennie Valiere). Later the play was often staged in Europe through Anna Yakobowitz.

In the same season in Philadelphia there was staged S.'s "Der ben yokhed (The Only Son)," which on 20 September 1923 was staged through Goldinburg. In new York's Irving Place Theatre, under the name "Di shpin un di flig" (with Goldinburg, Muni Weisenfreund et al), and then through it was staged in the Liberty Theatre under the name, "Vu iz mayn mame? (Where is my Mother?)." In the Liberty Theatre that season there was staged through Jacob Cone S.'s "Shklafn fun luksus," which in 1923 was staged in Philadelphia under the name, "Der ergster mensh in der velt" (with Baratov).

1923-1924--In Chicago's Palace Theatre there was staged (with Sam Kasten and David Baratz) S.'s play, "Plezhur (Pleasure)," and in New York's Irving place Theatre, "Di gekoyfte kale (The Bought Bride)" (with Mae Simon).

1924-1925--There was staged: "Yede mame (Every Mother?)" (in the Second Avenue with Jennie Valiere), which later was staged in Philadelphia (through Mae Simon), under the name, "Di shlang in gan-eydn," and on 23 January 1925, in the National Theatre, "Di dray kales (The Three Brides), music by Sandler" (with Blank).

1925-1926--In the Grand Theatre--The tsayt-piese, "Der shteyger-proteses," which soon thereafter was staged across the entire province; in Philadelphia's Arch Street Theatre (staged through Blank)--"A tatens nekome" and then "Dem tatens tekhter," which in the 1926-27 season was staged across the province under the name, "Der meshugener tate" (with Blank and Annie Meltzer).

1927-1928--In New York's Irving Place Theatre there was staged through Max Rosenthal S.'s "Alimony" (with Rosenthal, Celia and Stella Adler).

1928-1929--In Philadelphia's Arch Street Theatre there was staged through Jacob Cone, "Oyfn mzbkh fun libe," and "Farbotene skhoyre (Forbidden Goods?)" (with Berta Gerstin), and in New York's Lyric Theatre (with Betty Frank) "Di freylekhe moyd," which then was staged in Philadelphia under the name, "Yedens gelibte" (with Celia Adler).

Outside of this there was staged S.'s plays, "Di farvelkte blum" (in the Lyric Theatre, with Esther and Sol Wallerstein), "Der zayde" (in the Gold Theatre with Silberts), "Tsores fun kinder" (across the province), "Di shvartse hant," "Beyze tsinger," the tseyt-pieses: "Leo M Frank keym," "Harry K Tho" and "Nen peterson", as well as ten one-act and two-act sketches for the Yiddish vaudeville world.

Not staged were Z.'s plays: "Tsulib kinder," "Zamri," "Der tsedek" (adapted from Rostan's "L'oglon"), "Geter fun der velt" and "Shir hashirim (Song of Songs)" (historical fantasy).

S.'s published plays:

  1. Di idishe anna karenina
    drama in 4 akten fon I. Zlotarevsky, prayz 30 kop'
    Ferlag fun dovid roth, Bukhandlung,
    Lemberg srst [1909, 44 pp., 16]

  2. R' Ava'li ashkenazi
    lebens bild in 4 akten fun I. Zlotarevsky
    Ferlag fun dovid roth, Bukhandlung, Lemberg
    Lemberg srs't {1909, 52 pp., 16]

  3. Der "yeshiva bokher"
    (oder Der yudisher hamlet)
    a piese in 4 akten un 6 bider
    fun "Zolotarevsky"
    Warsaw [loytn Rusishn 1914, 56 pp, 16]

  4. I. Zolotarevsky
    Geld liebe un shande
    piese in 4 akten
    ferlag "rekord" Warsaw 1923 [58 pp., 16]

  5. Professor Jacobi
    Di vayse shklafen
    drama in fier akten
    ferlag Sh. Goldfarb Warsaw 1926
    prayz 1 zloty [48 pp., 16]

  6. I. Zolotarevsky
    Libe un laydenshaft
    lebens-bid in fier akten
    prayz 1 zl.
    ferlag Sh. Goldfarb, Warsaw, 1926 [64 pp., 16]

  7. [Anonymous]
    Di shtifmuter
    a drama in 3 akten
    farlag Sh. Goldfarb, Warsaw 1928
    [52 pp., pp., 16]

M. E.

  • Z. Reisen-- "Lexicon of Yiddish Literature," Vol. I, pp. 1026-1028.

  • B. Gorin-- "History of Yiddish Theatre," Vol, I, p. 200; Vol. II, pp. 141, 200, 205.

  • Bessie Thomashefsky-- "Mayn lebens-geshikhte," New York, 1916, p. 251.

  • Uriel Mazik-- "Dos gezets fun natur" fun i. zolotorevsky, in people's teater, "Tog," 2 January 1920.

  • B. Gorin-- Dos gezets fun natur, "Morning Journal," 6 January 1920.

  • Uriel Mazik-- "Libe un laydenshaft" in dem gebil teater, "Tog," 13 May 1921.

  • B. I. Goldstein-- "In a velt fun zind" in lipzin teater, "Tog," 7 January 1922.

  • Aaron Rosen-- "In a velt fun zind" in lipzin's theater, "Yidishe tagenblat," 6 January 1922.

  • S. Dingol-- "Der prayz fun a get" in peoples teater, "Tog," 8 January 1922.

  • Aaron Rosen-- "Der prayz fun a get" -- a treren piese, in peoples theater, "Yidishe tagenblat,"  13 January 1922.

  • Hillel Rogoff-- Tsvey piesen in irving plays theater, "Forverts," 5 October 1923.

  • Hillel Rogoff-- "A mames opfer," Zolotorevsky's melodrame in kesler's teater, "Forverts," 12 Oct. 1923.

  • Moishe Nadir-- "Mayne hent hobn fargosen dos blut,'' pp. 150-153, N. Y.

  • Israel der yenki-- "Di dray kales" in neshonel teater, "Yidishe tagenblat" 30 January 1925.

  • Ab. Cahan-- "Di dray kales," "Forverts," 13 February 1925.

  • Z. Kornbluth-- "Di dramatishe kunst," New York, p. 166.

  • M. Osherowitch-- "Dovid kesler un muni weisenfreund," New York, 1930, pp. 222-24.






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Adapted from the original Yiddish text found within the  "Lexicon of the Yiddish Theatre" by Zalmen Zylbercweig, Volume 1, page 735.

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